THE COSMETICS INDUSTRY
Few cosmetic ingredients are manufactured in New Zealand, and the cosmentic industry here involves mainly blending and packaging. However a wide range of products is made by a considerable number of companies. In this article the following products are discussed: • Surfactant mixtures for cleaning - shampoos, bubble baths, facial scrubs etc. • Stabilised emulsions - moisterisers, sunscreens etc. • Concealer products - make up • Alcoholic and hydroalcoholic solutions - colognes, toners, aftershaves etc. • Alcoholic and hydroalcoholic gels - hair gels, fragrance gels • Solid wax products - lipsticks. leg wax etc. INTRODUCTION Cosmetic manufacturing in New Zealand is a fairly simple industry, with manufacturing being limited mainly to blending and packaging. Few of the ingredients are made in New Zealand, and there is a trend for the final manufacturing to move offshore as the multinational marketing companies consolidate their manufacturing in fewer sites around the world. In spite of this there is a vigorous and varied local manufacturing industry making a wide range of products, often on a contract basis to the multinational brand name holders. In the main the industry in New Zealand industry is made up of relatively few multinational manufacturers, several multi-disciplinary contract manufacturers, and a wider group of small companies which manufacture and market their own products. This importance of contract packers in the New Zealand industry is typical of what happens in other parts of the world this has come about partly because of the internationalisation of cosmetic brands, and partly because the skills involved in marketing and making cosmetics are not necessarily the same. There are of course exceptions to this latter point - at the time of writing (1998) Revlon and Gillette each has their own plant in New Zealand, as does Lever Rexona and Colgate Palmolive. The pattern of the last few years has been for the larger players to seek manufacturing efficiencies by moving offshore completely, or by concentrating on fewer products and making these as efficiently as possible. Companies where the first approach was adopted include Beechams, S.C. Johnson, Reckitt & Colman, Elizabeth Arden, L' Oreal, Lentheric Morny Cyclax, Avon, Wella and Helene Curtis. In contrast to this the strategy of concentating on fewer products and making these on an internationally competitive basis has allowed Gillette to become the regional supplier of shaving foams, hair sprays and antiperspirants to the Gillette group. Lever Rexona and Colgate have taken this one step further and concentrated almost entirely on detergent products, and now import their cosmetic products from plants outside New Zealand or in some cases from contract packers within New Zealand.
In this article the approach has been taken to divide the topic into groups where similar manufacturing processes apply, and to concentrate mainly on areas where significant manufacturing takes place with in New Zealand. The main exception to this approach is in the manufacture of toilet soap from tallow which is covered in the previous article. SURFACTANT MIXTURES WHOSE PRIMARY FUNCTION IS CLEANING (shampoos, bubble baths, facial scrubs etc.) A large part of cosmetic chemistry is to do with making blends of mild detergents which can be used to clean the skin. These mixtures have to be effective, mild and safe, and make up a large proportion of the total volume of cosmetics. When traced back to source the basic feedstocks for these surfactants are either plant oils or petroleum, although there is a lot of stainless steel and industrial chemistry between the primary raw material and the final surfactant. Formulations A typical shampoo, bubble bath or facial scrub is usually an diluted anionic surfactant, such as the sodium, triethanolamine or ammonium salt of lauryl sulphate (SLS, TLS or ALS), or the sodium salt of lauryl ether...
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