Corruption is a social evil having capacity to shake the very basis of the society; it cannot only affect the working of the government but threaten the very fabric of society. Though no country in the world is save from this evil; even the developed countries has to cope with this predicament however this phenomenon has proved to be disastrous for the developing countries like Pakistan. In 2011 Pakistan is graded as 123rd most corrupt state out of 136. Corruption may be referred as a deliberate and intentional exploitation of one’s position, status or resources directly or indirectly for personal aggrandizement, whether it may be in term of material gain or enhancement of power, prestige or influence beyond what is legitimate or sanctioned.
Corruption is illegal, irregular or unlawful exercise of authority on the part of any public office bearer, politician, any NGO or Private person, in order to obtain some benefits either in monetary term or to gain some power. Generally corruption is construed in a sense of bribery, no doubt bribery comes within the ambit of corruption however confining corruption merely to the bribery narrows down its scope; range of corruption contains everything from bribery to power or professional malpractice. Favouritism, embezzlement of funds and misuse of powers are immediate outcome of corruption.
No doubt the founding fathers of Pakistan expressed their loath against corruption e.g. Quaid-e-Azam described corruption as a curse while he was addressing to Constituent Assembly; he said;
One of the biggest curse from which India is suffering is bribery and corruption that is a poison, we must put that down with an iron hand.
History proved him right in his approach as after 64 years of independence; corruption has eroded the economy of Pakistan, imbued social immorality and has dreadful implication on governance. Because of extensive corruption people are losing their faith in Government and are wary of efficiency, competency and sincerity of government; violation of law has become order of the day; everyone exploit his power and take advantage of the situation. Factors like lust for maximum power, status and wealth are responsible of waning away the social order bringing it at the brink of complete collapse.
The causes of corruption are numerous depending on its nature; on political front the sole reason of corruption is the yearning for power, more power and maximum power on the part of politician. By misusing their power they try to perpetuate their rule and tenure in power. So far as civil service is concerned; the paramount reason of corruption is to gain pecuniary benefits; they put forward the excuse of financial disparities as justification of corruption. No doubt the prices of living now a days is too high to be managed while the remunerations of employees are too low to make their both ends meet compelling them to resort to corrupt practices. Civil servants in Pakistan inherited corrupt practices from civil service of British India; they are generally prone to illegally extort money from the people before doing their work.
Insecurity of tenure of post; irrational assignments and promotions; compartmentalization of bureaucracy, permeating of psychological clime of lower; lack of bureaucratic harmony; frustration by technical experts; resentment on the part of provincial service officers; immobility between the cadres and major classes of ranks; large scale readjustment of personnel and changes in structure of government are other contributors of this imbroglio.
The other major reasons of fast creeping corruption are political instability, poverty, unequal structure of society, growing unemployment, lack of accountability, unequal distribution of resources and power and absence of rule of law.
Political instability takes away economic growth, completely halt the development procedure in society ensuing poverty and social stratification...