Corruption in Nigeria Tertiary Institution

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INTRODUCTION:
Nigeria, a nation endowed with natural, human and capital resources with a population of over 160 million people an estimated growth rate of 4.65 percent and covers 923.8 thousand square kilometers, about the size of California, Nevada and Arizona states in the United States, (Usman, 2007). Nigeria as a country, is the eight largest oil exporting country in the world and its oil reserves are estimated over 1000 trillion cubic feet (Usman, 2007). It is unfortunate that a country with such abundance cannot compete with the Asian and the industrialized countries, is struggling to stand on its own. This is due to the prevalence of poverty, ignorance, diseases and unemployment to name a few, which is characterized by corruption, corrupt practices/activities and the mismanagement of the resources and affairs of the country. The quest for material possessions and position with corrupt tendencies had been revealed with the various probes of some sectors in Nigeria which indicated top ranking government officials. Above all, the quest to pass examinations at all cost due to emphasis hard on Certificates (rather than skill or life-long learning) had made students not to embrace honesty and integrity in their conduct in schools Corruption and corrupt practices in education constitutes a serious threat to the successful achievement of education for all or national education goals as pointed out by Hallack and Poisson (2007), corruption tends to reduce the resources available for education, it limits access to education, especially for the disadvantage groups, it also leads to deterioration of the quality of education and increase social inequalities.

Literature Review
According to the African Union, corruption is estimated to cost Africa, directly and indirectly, some 25 percent of its Gross Domestics Product (GDP): The Economist 19th sept.2002 cited in the Hallack and Poisson(2007) in defining Corruption in Education, Hallack and Poisson(2007) define it as the systematic use of public office for private benefit, whose impact is significant on the availability of goods and services, and as a consequence on access, quality and equity in education. There are various types of corrupt practices prevalent in the school system in Nigeria and some of these are: Cultism, sale of inferior textual material improperly referred to as “handouts” admission and certificate racketeering, academic fraud, examination malpractices. As Kanno (2004) pointed out, the quest for false and perpetuation of changed values further gave rise to the formation of secret cult fraternities in tertiary level of education in Nigeria. Okojie(2012) noted that corruption has eroded creativity, played down the value of hard work and enthroned mediocrity in the nation’s University system. He added that higher education was the conscience of the society and must strive at all times to uphold values that make for civility and positive development. “The Nigeria University Commission (NUC) as a regulatory body of all degree-awarding Institutions in Nigeria has therefore, put in place mechanisms to eradicate corruptions in the University System. This includes closure of all illegal degree mills with the aid of security agencies, verification of academic programs before commencement, programmes and instructional accreditation exercises and on-the-spot inspection and monitoring of Universities activities and host of others” Okojie said. ICPC,s chief of planning, Research and Review, Mr. Godwin Oche (2011) said the present day tertiary institution have become a haven for corrupt practices where “Corruption becomes the rule rather than the exception.” Oche mentioned some of the factors that encourage systematic corruption to include conflicting incentives discretionary powers, monopolistic powers, lack of transparency, low pay and a culture of impunity. He therefore, recommended the principle of the (5) ‘C’s – Condition, Criteria, Causes,...
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