To find relationships between naturally occuring events, researchers use correlational studies measure one variable (X)
measure a second variable (Y)
determine a statistical relationship between the variables.
Correlational studies MEASURE variables, they do not manipulate variables.

Correlational Coefficient

The correlation coefficient is statistical value that indicates the strength of the relationship between two variables. The mathematical representation for the correlation coefficient is r. Correlation(r) = ( NΣXY - (ΣX)(ΣY) ) / Sqrt([NΣX2 - (ΣX)2][NΣY2 - (ΣY)2])

Positive:
- If x and y have a strong positive linear correlation, r i close to +1. - An r value of exact +1 indicates a perfect positive fit.
- Positive values indicate a relationship between x and y variables such as values for x increases, values for y also increase. Negative
- If x and y have a strong negative linear correlation, r is close to -1. - An r value of exactly -1 indicates a perfect negative fit. - Negative values indicate a relationship between x and y such that as values for x increases, values for y decrease. Correlation Coefficient: -1 < (or equal to) r < (or equal to) No correlation:

- not a linear relationship, but a curve
- if there is no line correlation or a weak linear correlation, r is close to 0. - a value near zero means that there is a random, nonlinear relationship between the two variables.

Coefficient of Determination: r^2
The coefficient of determination r^2 is useful because it gives the proportion of the variance (fluctuation) of one variable that is predictable from the other variable. It is a measure that allows to determine how certain one can be in making predictions from a certain model/graph. The ratio of the explained variation to the total variation. 0 < r2 < 1, and denoted the strength of the linear association between x an dy....

...For my observationalstudy, I chose to observe a child named Andrew. Andrew has been a student at Busy Bees Childcare Center for approximately 3 years, and I have been an employee there for an equal amount of time. In order to ensure this observation was not intrusive, I conducted the observation on personal time, and a teacher’s aide was placed in the room during the time of observation. Andrew is 4 years old, and has been diagnosed with a high-spectrum form of...

...Small Group Assignment: ObservationalStudy at Forever 21
Being frequent shoppers ourselves, we were interested in the topic of female shopping behaviour and whether our initial assumptions based on our experiences were accurate. We thus came up with two hypotheses, namely:
1) Teenage girls spend more time deciding on their purchase than adult women.
2) Females who shop on weekends spend more time than they do shopping on weekdays.
We came up with the...

...ObservationalStudy
We all live in a world where we focus on tomorrow and what will happen next. We don’t take the time to look around and try to make sense of the things we see. We need to slow things down, just watch, and then think of why we do the things we do or why we interact in the ways we do. As I did my observation, my goal was to see how individuals interacted with others through the use of their space.
The main entrance has a ramp and two newspaper...

...increasing skill.
Gets immersed in a hobby or project, then drops it for another.
May be a perfectionist.
Generally follows instructions.
Develops own standards of right and wrong.
Is highly concerned about fairness.
Observational Child Study
Name: Date:
Direction: Encircle the letter of the correct answer.
1. The following are the developmental task of Filipino childhood during 9 years old. In what aspect of
the child’s...

...ObservationalStudy – Shopping Mall (Lynn haven mall, Virginia Beach, VA)
Shopping malls are overcrowded place with consumers from different ethnic backgrounds visiting to shop and spent some quality time. The consumer of the mall in general consists of single to big families, teenagers and senior citizens. For one particular marketing research, I have decided to take a challenge on creating an observationalstudy for how many...

...is why attachment parenting techniques is preferred by the majority parents. As the babies grow, they learn best by observing the behavior of adults in the home.
Observational learning can take place at any stage in life, however, it brings a great impact to a child an authority becomes important during the childhood life. Observational learning can produce new behaviors and characteristic, either increase or decrease the frequency with which a previously learned...

...Philippine Journal of Science
134 (1): 31-37, June 2005
ISSN 0031 - 7683
31
Merlyn S. Mendioro
*
,
Maria Genaleen Q. Diaz
,
Maria Theresa B. Alcantara,
Oscar J. Hilario, Patrocinio Mateo
and
Reycel D.M. Maghirang
Key words
: cytological studies, iron-acetocarmine squash technique,
Euphorbia
,
Moringa
,
Chrysanthemum
, karyotype
*Corresponding author: msmendioro@yahoo.com
INTRODUCTION
Plant products are widely used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics
and food...

...Correlational Research
“Correlation is a statistical technique that can show whether and how strongly pairs of variables are related” (Creative Research Systems, 2010). Correlation research method is used in scientific research to study the association and/or relationship between variables. When the association between two variables becomes correlation coefficient, it is being calculated through quantitative measure. The goal for using this method is to...

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