Correlation Does Not Imply Causation and Treatment/more Independent Variable

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Descriptive Research
* Recording events
* DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH: describes behaviour of organisms in natural settings * CASE STUDY: in-depth analysis of an individual, group, or event. * detail; observation, interview, tests, etc.

* closely study rare phenomena; challenge validity of other theories; new hypotheses * does not accurately determine cause-effect; inaccurate generalization; researcher bias * RESEARCHER BIAS: lack of objectivity in gathering & interpreting data * NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION: observing behaviour as it occurs in natural setting; no influence * rich description of behaviour

* does not permit clear causal conclusions; researcher bias; influence of researcher’s presence * HABITUATION: participants adapt to researcher presence, becoming unaware * SURVEY RESEARCH: info about a topic obtained through questionnaires/interviews * POPULATION: all individuals of interest

* SAMPLE: subset of individuals drawn from the population of interest * REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE: reflects/represents important characteristics of the population * RANDOM SAMPLING: every member population has equal chance of participating * portrays population as a whole

* unrepresentative sample inaccurate generalizations; desirability/research bias; cannot conclude cause-and-effect relations * CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH: measuring statistical relationships between 2+ variables * correlation studies measure variables; NOT manipulate: 1. Measure one variable (X)

2. Measure second variably (Y)
3. Statistically determine if X & Y are related (X Y) * BIDIRECTIONALITY PROBLEM: X Y, X Y, or X Y
* THIRD VARIABLE PROBLEM: X Z Y
* determines if association between variables exists
* cannot draw causal conclusions
* CORRELATION COEFFICIENT: indicates...
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