Trisakti University of Medicine
I Made Setiadji
Jakarta, June 14th 2012
A majority of Parkinson's disease patients had insufficient levels of vitamin D. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common form of neurodegeneration in the elderly population. In PD, one's levels of dopamine are lowered because the nerve cells which make the chemical have either died or lost their usual functioning. Clinically, it is characterized by tremor, rigidity, slowness of movement, and postural imbalance. The correlation located in vitamin D deficiency can cause PD, or PD can cause vitamin D deficiency. A significant association between low serum vitamin D and PD has been demonstrated, suggesting that elevated vitamin D levels might provide neuroprotection against PD. An evidence suggests that vitamin D supplementation may be beneficial for PD patients.
Key word: Parkinson’s Disease, vitamin D, neurodegeneration, and neuroprotection.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a movement disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity, slowness of movement, and postural imbalance. Vitamin D insufficiency is a common health problem in elderly individuals, who also have a high prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases. Vitamin D is primarily produced in the skin on exposure to UV-B radiation and is found in limited food sources.(1) ; advancing age, obesity, avoidance of sun exposure, residence in northerly latitudes, and darker skin pigmentation are associated with increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. Patients with chronic neurodegenerative diseases frequently have many risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency. The vitamin D receptors and an enzyme responsible for the formation of the active form 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D have been found in high levels in the substantia nigra, the region of the brain affected most by Parkinson disease.(2) This raises the possibility that chronic inadequacy of vitamin D leads to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra region and further Parkinson disease. Genetic studies have helped identify a number of proteins linking vitamin D to PD pathology, including the the vitamin D receptor (VDR), nerve growth factor (NGF), prostaglandins (PGs), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), also in PD with diabetes mellitus patients and PD patients with osteoporosis.(1) There is evidence of abnormalities in the vitamin D-endocrine system in PD patients, including low bone mineral density (BMD), and decreased vitamin D levels. These factors, combined with balance problems, are the probable reasons for the high incidence of fractures, especially of the hip, reported in elderly women with PD3. Sunlight exposure can increase the BMD of PD by increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) levels.(3) In another study, serum 25OHD and BMD were reported to be reduced in PD patients. Despite an abundance of correlational studies, it is unknown whether vitamin D deficiency is a cause or consequence of PD. In the literature review will discuss about the role of vitamin D in the Parkinson’s Disease (PD). The cause(s) of PD until now is still unknown, many studies suggest that genetic and environmental both can cause PD, and the newest study suggest there is other factor such as vitamin D that have role in PD pathology, the study about role of vitamin D is still in progress and need more for further investigation about it. The literature review discuss is about result of cohort study compared with in vitro PD induced in mammals study.
Parkinson's disease is a disorder of the brain that leads to shaking (tremors) and difficulty with walking, movement, and coordination. Nerve cells use a brain chemical called dopamine to help control muscle movement. Parkinson's disease occurs when the nerve cells in the brain that make dopamine are slowly destroyed. Without dopamine, the nerve cells in that part of...