University of Phoenix
Corrections have existed throughout society for many years and continued to change and evolve in the United States reflecting society’s values and ideals throughout the centuries. In the criminal justice system, corrections exist in more than one form. Not only do corrections refer to jails and prison systems but they also pertain to community-based programs, such as probation, parole, halfway houses, and treatment facilities. Past, present, and future trends in regard to the development and operation of institutional and community-based corrections vary between states but corrections have grown immensely since the early 1800s and have continued to expand over time. Corrections are adamant to continue to expand into the future because crime is not slowing down so there will remain a strong need for corrections throughout society. The subject of this paper pertains to research of past, present, and future trends in the development and operation of corrections. In some ways corrections are similar to the operation trends of two decades ago. In other ways the development of corrections has come far compared to corrections in the beginning. Other subjects of the paper include current and future issues for prisons and prison administrators and an explanation for why these issues overwhelm corrections. A last topic for discussion is the roles of alternate corrections as a developing trend. Conditions in the early era were inhumane because of prisoners starving, and trends of punishment were in the form of physical punishment. Examples of this were punishments, such as prisoners hanged, tortured, beheaded, or mutilated. This punishment was popular in England, but it had an effect on its American predecessors. Although the conservative e trend that emerged in the 1970s continued to dominate justice system policy the debate between punishment and treatment brought new questions about (Muraskin & Roberts, 2009, pp. 263). Over the years and into the future many still wonder the dominate method in reducing the number of criminals in the department of corrections. The American colonies used means of a corporal punishment just as the motherlands (Gaines & Miller, 208, pp. 313). The system brutally executed citizens who had violated any law. However, not all colonial administrators adhered to a brutal punishment, such as the death penalty. “The Great Law” ensured any victim a restitution of property or goods, given by the felon (pp. 313). This code, based on Quaker ideals and humanity and rehabilitation, by William Penn was introduced. Although “The Great Law” still allowed the death penalty, most felons who could not pay restitution to their victims were not executed but were sent to prison where they worked. This exceptional code, in William Penn’s case gained attention by other American colonies. After Penn’s death, Pennsylvania, The center of prison reform, opened its very first penitentiary in Philadelphia (Johnston, 2011). This initiated a chain reaction and other states looked to Pennsylvania as an example for reform. They looked to the penitentiary as a hope of rehabilitating the criminal spirit. It helped to treat and discipline prisoners rather than physically harm them. The silence in a penitentiary was meant to force prisoners to think about their crimes, and weigh the benefits against the consequences. Although the silence treatment was successful, many inmates brought into the penitentiaries and had to share rooms as a result of crowded conditions. This happened at the Walnut Street Prison Penitentiary, and it ended with overcrowded conditions and excessive cost. The prison eventually shut down. Although the prison was shut down, many states continued to use the penitentiary system. If overcrowding occurred it just meant building new penitentiaries. The penitentiary system was important because it influenced...