The corrections system
The correction system was basically functioned through principles that were commonly used in England in the early 1700s. Prisons were virtually nonexistent before the 1700s; prison was not considered a serious punishment for crime, and was seldom used. Instead, governments imprisoned people who were awaiting trial or punishment whereupon they would receive the more common capital or corporal types of punishment. Common punishments at that time included branding, imposing fines, whipping and the death penalty (capital punishment). The authorities punished most offenders in public in order to discourage people from breaking the law; this falls under the theory of deterrence. During the 1700s, many people criticized the use of executions, and other harsh punishments. This was the beginning of the early prison reform. As a result, governments turned more and more to imprisonment as a serious form of punishment. The first prison in the United States was The Walnut Street Jail created a regimen of hard work and reflection in order to do penance for criminal offenses. The operations of the jail focused on these points, Inmates were kept in individual cells, Inmates were not permitted to talk to each other Inmates often wore masks as they were moved through the prison to hide their identity Inmates were provided work such as handicrafts during the day During the evening hours, inmates were encouraged to read the Bible and repent for their crimes. Prisons were dark, dirty, and overcrowded. They locked all types of prisoners together, including men, women and children, plus dangerous criminals, debtors and the insane. One form of imprisonment was transportation. At the beginning of the 1800s, prison reformers began to emphasize the importance of keeping prisoners alone. It was thought that if they had time to reflect in solitary...
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