Organizations and their structural and political environment
1. Demographic structures, product, and labour markets
• Demographics or demographic data are the characteristics of a population as used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the demographic profiles used in such research.
• Product is the end result of the manufacturing process, to be offered to the marketplace to satisfy a need or want.
• Labour market is the nominal market in which workers find paying work, employers find willing workers, and wage rates are determined.
2. Socio-economic groupings
• Market Research agencies often divide the population into different groupings, based on the occupation of the head of the household, for the purpose of drawing comparisons across a wide range of people - it is used to see how people in differing socio-economic situations react to the same stimuli.
3. The influence of culture on organizational values, attitudes, behaviour and performance
4. Social responsibility and organizations
• Social responsibility is an ethical or theory that an entity, be it an organization or individual, has an obligation to act to benefit society at large.
5. Ethical behaviour in the enterprise
• Acting in ways consistent with what society and individuals typically think are good values. Ethical behaviour tends to be good for business and involves demonstrating respect for key moral principles that include honesty, fairness, equality, dignity, diversity and individual rights.
6. The role of the state and its impact on organizations
7. Political parties and pressure groups and their influence on government policy
Aims and objectives
Business activity is focused around the achievement of business aims and business objectives. A business aim is the goal a business wants to achieve. A primary aim for all business organisations is to add value and in the private sector this involves making a profit. More strategic aims include expansion, market leadership and brand building. A business objective is a detailed picture of a step you plan to take in order to achieve a stated aim.
Relationship between shareholders, bondholders, bankers and directors
Corporate governance involves the relationship among the various participants involved in determining the strategy and performance of corporations. The major participants include the firm's shareholders (including large institutions), the management team, and the board of directors. Corporate governance encompasses: corporate performance, succession/nomination, relations between the board and the chief executive officer (CEO), and relations with shareholders and stakeholders.
potential conflict of interest
* "Potential conflict of interest" means any action or any decision or recommendation by a person acting in a capacity as a public official, the effect of which could be to the private pecuniary benefit or detriment of the person or the person's relative, or a business with which the person or the person's relative is associated, unless the pecuniary benefit or detriment arises out of the following: (a) An interest or membership in a particular business, industry, occupation or other class required by law as a prerequisite to the holding by the person of the office or position. (b) Any action in the person's official capacity which would affect to the same degree a class consisting of all inhabitants of the state, or a smaller class consisting of an industry, occupation or other group including one of which or in which the person, or the person's relative or business with which the person or the person's relative is associated, is a member or is engaged. (c) Membership in or membership on the board of directors of a nonprofit corporation that is tax-exempt under section 501(c) of the Internal Revenue Code.
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