Genesis Burkett was born on September 26, 2010 three weeks before the expected date. During his admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit he was administered sodium intravenously in a dose 60 times normal. As a result, blood tests that day indicated abnormally high levels; these were brought to the attention of the physician. The doctor ordered him checked but eight hours later, nothing had been done in response. At the age of six weeks, Genesis suffered a fatal heart attack (CBS News, 2011).
The parents of Genesis Burkett have filed a lawsuit against the hospital and staff claiming negligence because of avoidable human error. The executive vice president of CMO Advocate Healthcare, Dr. Lee Sacks, said, "Our organization takes full accountability for the tragedy leading to the death of the baby, and has been transparent and disclosed everything we know about it in a commitment to improve care" (CBS News, 2011, para. 1). The Burketts' attorney, Patrick Salvi Sr., said, "A simple mistake could have been picked up several times along the way, by a pharmacist, then by a doctor, and they were not, and as a result, a little baby that was well on his way to recovery died." (CBS News, 2011, para. 1).
According to a study by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, at least 1.5 million individuals suffer from by medication errors each year (Institute of Medicine, 2006). Medication errors are the most common of type medical errors in healthcare facilities. The report goes continues that the extra expense to treat injuries related to mistakes in drug administration in hospitals alone amounts to approximately $3.5 billion yearly, not including figures for wages and productivity lost or additional costs of health care (Institute of Medicine, 2006). Medication Errors
The discussion of medications includes over-the-counter drugs, drugs requiring a prescription, herbal supplements, vitamins, and minerals. Whereas the healthcare facility is not responsible for the administration of drugs acquired outside the organization, it is the responsibility of the providers to communicate with the patient concerning drugs ingested at home in order to evaluate potential interactions with those administered in the healthcare setting. Possible classifications for medication errors are •inappropriate drug either prescribed by the physician, incorrectly transcribed by the clerk, incorrectly filled by the pharmacist, or incorrectly administered by the nurse. More than one factor may apply. •inappropriate dosage drug either prescribed by the physician, incorrectly transcribed by the clerk, incorrectly filled by the pharmacist, or incorrectly administered by the nurse. More than one factor may apply.
•wrong time of administration ordered by the physician, incorrectly transcribed by the clerk, overlooked by the pharmacist, or incorrectly administered by the nurse. More than one factor may apply. A single error can be a consequence of multiple causes. For instance, a physician may prescribe an inappropriate drug and that order may not be noticed by the pharmacist or the nurse or both. Contributing factors to a medication error at any step of the medication process include •inadequate information about the drug
•inadequate information about the patient and his or her needs •violations of rules or policies
•errors in transcription
•inaccurate identification of a drug
•inadequate communication with other services in the facility •inaccurate checking of dose
•incorrect drug stocking
•errors in preparation
•lack of standardization procedures
Corporate Social Responsibility
Kotler and Lee (2006) describe corporate social responsibility as the commitment an organization makes to improve...