Lease is a contract between the owner and the user of assets for a certain time period during which the second party uses an asset in exchange of making periodic rental payments to the first party without purchasing it. Under lease financing, the lessee regularly pays the fixed lease rent over a period of time at the beginning or at the end of a month, 3 months, 6 months or a year. At the end of the lease contract the asset reverts to the real owner. However, in case of long-term lease contracts, the lessee is generally given the option to buy the leased asset or renew the lease contract. The three major types of leases are the operating lease, financial/capital lease and the direct financing lease. The operating lease is a short-term lease contract where the lessor bears all operating and repairing costs of the asset and the lessee pays periodic rental payments to the lessor, and where the lease is cancelable, and there is no bargain purchase option. Financial/capital lease is a long-term lease contract where the lessee bears all operating, repairing and maintenance costs, and makes periodic rental payments to the lessor. The lease is not cancelable and the lessee has the option for bargain purchase or renewal of lease contract at the end of the original lease period. In a direct financing lease, the lessor leases the asset by manufacturing or by purchasing from the manufacturer to the lessee directly and the lessee makes regular rental payments to the lessor. The lessor holds the ownership of the asset until the end of the lease period and the lessee holds the possession of the asset. In addition to these major types, there are some other types of lease such as sale and lease and leveraged lease.
Legally, a leasing company is defined as one having the business of hiring plants or equipment or of financing their hire by others. The International Finance Corporation promotes leasing as a method of financing industrial development in the developing countries as a part of its capital market development strategies.
International Financial Reporting Standards:
International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are Standards, Interpretations and the Framework adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). Many of the standards forming part of IFRS are known by the older name of International Accounting Standards (IAS). IAS were issued between 1973 and 2001 by the Board of the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC). On 1 April 2001, the new IASB took over from the IASC the responsibility for setting International Accounting Standards. During its first meeting the new Board adopted existing IAS and SICs. The IASB has continued to develop standards calling the new standards IFRS.
Structure of IFRS:
IFRS are considered a "principles based" set of standards in that they establish broad rules as well as dictating specific treatments. International Financial Reporting Standards comprise:
•International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) - standards issued after 2001 •International Accounting Standards (IAS) - standards issued before 2001 •Interpretations originated from the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) - issued after 2001 •Standing Interpretations Committee (SIC) - issued before 2001
Requirements of IFRS:
IFRS financial statements consist of (IAS1.8):
•a Statement of Financial Position
•a comprehensive income statement
•either a statement of changes in equity (SOCE) or a statement of recognised income or expense ("SORIE") •a cash flow statement or statement of cash flows
•notes, including a summary of the significant accounting policies Comparative information is provided for the previous reporting period (IAS 1.36). An entity preparing IFRS accounts for the first time must apply IFRS in full for the current and comparative period although there are transitional exemptions (IFRS1.7). On 6...