Corporate Finance: Core Principles and Applications
Ross, Westerfield, Jaffe, and Jordan
INTRODUCTION TO CORPORATE FINANCE
Answers to Concept Questions
1. The three basic forms are sole proprietorships, partnerships, and corporations. Some disadvantages of sole proprietorships and partnerships are: unlimited liability, limited life, difficulty in transferring ownership, and hard to raise capital funds. Some advantages are: simpler, less regulation, the owners are also the managers, and sometimes personal tax rates are better than corporate tax rates. The primary disadvantage of the corporate form is the double taxation to shareholders on distributed earnings and dividends. Some advantages include: limited liability, ease of transferability, ability to raise capital, and unlimited life. When a business is started, most take the form of a sole proprietorship or partnership because of the relative simplicity of starting these forms of businesses.
2. To maximize the current market value (share price) of the equity of the firm (whether it’s publicly traded or not).
3. In the corporate form of ownership, the shareholders are the owners of the firm. The shareholders elect the directors of the corporation, who in turn appoint the firm’s management. This separation of ownership from control in the corporate form of organization is what causes agency problems to exist. Management may act in its own or someone else’s best interests, rather than those of the shareholders. If such events occur, they may contradict the goal of maximizing the share price of the equity of the firm.
4. Such organizations frequently pursue social or political missions, so many different goals are conceivable. One goal that is often cited is revenue minimization; i.e., provide whatever goods and services are offered at the lowest possible cost to society. A better... [continues]
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