Cooperative Societies- Amul

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Amul formed in 1946, is a dairy cooperative in India. It is a brand name managed by an apex cooperative organisation, Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. (GCMMF), which today is jointly owned by some 2.8 million milk producers in Gujarat, India[2]. AMUL is based in Anand, Gujarat and has been an example of a co-operative organization's success in the long term. It is one of the best examples of co-operative achievement in the developing economy. he Amul Pattern has established itself as a uniquely appropriate model for rural development. Amul has spurred the White Revolution of India, which has made India the largest producer of milk and milk products in the world[citation needed]. It is also the world's biggest vegetarian cheese brand. Amul is the largest food brand in India and world's Largest Pouched Milk Brand with an annual turnover of US $1050 million (2006–07).  Besides India, Amul has entered overseas markets such as Mauritius, UAE, USA, Bangladesh, Australia, China, Singapore, Hong Kong and a few South African countries. Dr Verghese Kurien, former chairman of the GCMMF, is recognised as a key person behind the success of Amul. There are 735 employees of Marketing Arm. However, real pool consist of 2.8 million milk producers

GCMMF TODAY- GCMMF is India's largest food products marketing organisation.[citation needed]. It is a state level apex body of milk cooperatives in Gujarat, which aims to provide remunerative returns to the farmers and also serve the interest of consumers by providing affordable quality products. GCMMF markets and manages the Amul brand.


The birth of Amul at Anand provided the impetus to the cooperative dairy movement in the country. The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union Limited was registered on December 14, 1946 as a response to exploitation of marginal milk producers by traders or agents of existing dairies in the small town named Anand (in Kaira District of Gujarat). Milk Producers had to travel long distances to deliver milk to the only dairy, the Polson Dairy in Anand. Often milk went sour as producers had to physically carry the milk in individual containers, especially in the summer season. These agents arbitrarily decided the prices depending on the production and the season. Milk is a commodity that has to be collected twice a day from each cow/buffalo. In winter, the producer was either left with surplus / unsold milk or had to sell it at very low prices. Moreover, the government at that time had given monopoly rights to Polson Dairy to collect milk from Anand and supply it to Bombay city in turn. India ranked nowhere amongst milk producing countries in the world in 1946.

Angered by the unfair and manipulative trade practices, the farmers of Kaira District approached Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel under the leadership of the local farmer leader Tribhuvandas Patel. Sardar Patel advised the farmers to form a Cooperative and supply milk directly to the Bombay Milk Scheme instead of selling it to Polson (who did the same but gave low prices to the producers). He sent Morarji Desai to organize the farmers. In 1946, the farmers of the area went on a milk strike refusing to be further oppressed. Thus the Kaira District Cooperative was established to collect and process milk in the District of Kaira in 1946. Milk collection was also decentralized, as most producers were marginal farmers who were in a position to deliver 1-2 litres of milk per day. Village level cooperatives were established to organize the marginal milk producers in each of these villages.

The Cooperative was further developed & managed by Dr. V Kurien along with Shri H M Dalaya. The first modern dairy of the Kaira Union was established at Anand (which popularly came to be known as AMUL dairy after its brand name). The foundations of a modern dairy industry in India were thus laid since India had one of the largest buffalo populations in the world. The...
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