Chapter 2: Literature Review
1. John Myers (Cooperative Learning Vol 11 #4 July 1991) points out that the dictionary definitions of "collaboration", derived from its Latin root, focus on the process of working together; the root word for "cooperation" stresses the product of such work.
2. According to Ted Panitz (1996), he summarize from Johnson, Johnson & Smith (1991) the six principles of their definition of a new paradigm of teaching and define cooperation is a structure that was designed to help and guide the specific of product or aims through people that working together in a group.
3. According to Skinners, et.al (2001), cooperative learning is also one of approach under The Communicative Approach where it involves a group of learners been instructed by one teacher when they are working together to complete the task instead of competitively working on it.
4. Weidner (2003,p.29) states that cooperative learning is a special form of group teaching which accentuates and structures social processes in learning and makes them a subject of discussion.
5. “ Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups os that students work together to maximize their own and other’s learning” (Johnson, Johnson & Holubec, 1998,p.15)
6. Robert Slavin (1987), suggested that cooperative learning occurs when instructional methods enable students to work and learn in small heterogeneous – ability groups. When this happens, cooperative learning is able to lead students into the social power of learning (Zemelman, Baniel & Hyde, 1993)
7. Roger T. and David W. Johnson (1994), says that even though these three interaction patterns are not equally effective in helping students learn concepts and skills, it is important that students learn to interact effectively in each of...