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River/Tributary Gauging Station Catchment Area Average Annual Runoff| (km2) a 1922–1961 (billion m3)b| Sutlej (E)c Rupar 48,300 17| Beas (E) Mandi Plain 16,900 16| Ravi (E) Madhopur 8,100 9| Chenab (W) Marala 29,600 32| Jhelum (W) Mangla 33,600 28| Kabul (W) Warsak 67,600 21| Indus (W) Attock 265,300 115| Total 469,400 217| a,bIt should be noted that different sources provide different estimates of the area and the runoff of the Indus system.

cE=eastern rivers; W=western rivers.
Sources: Harza (1963); Kirmani (1959); and Bureau of Reclamation (1963). is vast, with about 3/4 of the flow occurring between 4 months of the year — June and September (Alam, 1998; Salman and Uprety, 2002).

The major economic activity in the basin is irrigated agriculture. Until the British annexation of Sind and Punjab regions in the 19th century, inundation irrigation was the main technology, depending on availability of water in the river. Had it not been for the modern irrigation network developed after the annexation, the basin would not prosper to the extent it had. Modern irrigation, at that time, provided the framework around which both Pakistani and Indian Punjab grew to their present economic importance (Alam, 1998; Kux, 2006). By 1947, the irrigation system in the basin consisted of 26 million acres of irrigated agriculture, 34,000 miles of major canals, and 50 million people relying on a system consisting of 13 additional canals that were already in...