A Step for the Future Sustainability in Pakistan: Conversion of Vehicle Fuel from CNG to HCNG & its Environmental Effects/Benefits’ Qandeel Fatima Gillani *, Farrukh Jamil**, Waqar-un-Nisa***,Dr. Moinuddin Ghauri**** Department of Chemical Engineering COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan Abstract- The land of Pakistan is highly enriched with treasure of natural gas reservoirs due to that compressed natural gas CNG is abundantly used all over the Pakistan as a vehicle fuel. Natural gas can be blended with hydrogen to make HCNG. HCNG vehicle offers the potentials for immediate emission benefits, reduction in NOx/ SOx emission, which eventually affects positively on our environment. At the same time they can pave the way for a transition of fuel cell vehicles by building early demand for hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle fueled with hydrogen based transportations for future. This paper will mainly focus the blends of H and CNG as a fuel and its benefits for the future of Pakistan. I. INTRODUCTION fuels are increasing and this is the main reason that transportation in Pakistan is becoming very expensive day by day. Rapid growth in transportation industry has occurred in last two decade in Pakistan. CNG is cheaper, environmental friendly and well known alternative transportation fuel. Hydrogen is an excellent additive to methane or gasoline due to its unique characteristics. The blends of Hydrogen and CNG serve effectively as fuel for vehicles. II. CNG VEHICLES & BASIC INFRASTRUCTURES Pakistan is third largest country in world that using CNG as a transportation fuel. In June 2007, 1550000 3 vehicles on road were running due to CNG fuel, which is 24.9% of total vehicles. In 2012, no of vehicles will approximately 3500000 with annual growth of 50.1% [Based on data from IANGV]. Pakistan has largest number of CNG stations that is 1450 4’5 in June 2008. Natural gas vehicles are potential alternative to gasoline vehicles in short term. They are less polluting and fuel is widely available in Pakistan. III. HCNG AS A FUEL:
Most of energy used in world is supplied by fossil fuels. Burning of fossil fuels generates waste materials, mainly emissions to the atmosphere in form of combustion fuel gases and dust, as well as some ash and/or clinker. These waste materials have hazardous effects on environment, some of them locally, others with more widespread or even global impact. 1 Pakistan is that part of land which is very rich with treasure of natural gas. It is one of most abundant energy resources in Pakistan. Natural gas is mixture of various gases, major component is methane. In nature, this is odorless and colorless gas. In year 2007-2008, natural gas consumption in Pakistan was 1817.741 MMCF/day 2. Natural gas is a domestically available energy source with all consumers including residential, commercial, industrial, electricity generation, and automotive. While liquid petroleum fuels are current standard for automotive applications, some believe that hydrogen is indeed future automotive fuel of choice. A transition to hydrogen-fueled automobiles will take a litte time. One approach being suggested as an early step is concept of blending hydrogen with compressed natural gas (H/CNG) for use in internal combustion engine vehicles. Current natural gas engines and vehicles can be modified to operate on H/CNG with available technology. Pakistan has been suffering from severe kind of energy crisis for long. Transportation fuels are major component of our energy consumption scenario. Prices of transportation * Corresponding author. Address: Dept. of Chemical Engineering, CIIT Lahore. Email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org 1 Cripp H., Energy and The environment: http://eco.gn.apc.org/pubs/energy and environment.html. 2 www.sngpl.com.pk
Since last 15 years, many experiments have been conducted all over world. The major topic of the study is reduction of emission with respect to...
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