A PRAGMATIC ANALYSIS OF CONVERSATIONAL IMPLICATURE
USED BY THE MAIN CHARACTERS IN GUY RITCHIE’S
SHERLOCK HOLMES (2009)
Ratih Santi Mianawati
ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE STUDY PROGRAM
FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND ARTS
YOGYAKARTA STATE UNIVERSITY
1. Title of Research: A Pragmatic Analysis of Conversational Implicature used by the Main Characters in Guy Ritchie’s Sherlock Holmes (2009) Personal identity:
a. Name/St. Number: Ratih Santi Mianawati/08211141027
b. Study Program: English Language and Literature
a. Background of Study
Many phenomena happen in daily life. One of them is communication. People spend much more time communicating than they realize. However, they sometimes do not aware that when they communicate they reveal something deeper through their utterances. These utterances might be in the form of long sentences or short sentences. The meaning of each utterance depends on listener’s interpretation. One speaker may utter something, but the two listeners may have different interpretations related to such utterance. Understanding how the process of communication works is equally important with having good communication skill. It often happens that what is meant contains something deeper than what is said. Therefore, although someone says something in a short utterance, the meaning can go beyond that. The utterance which a speaker chooses can also depend on a particular context and the listener should interpret that utterance. There is an expectation that both participants of communication have the same thought about what actually they talk about. Cooperation is needed in this case. A speaker can actually say A but he or she prefers to choose B although these two utterances has the same meaning. The implied meaning in what the speaker says is important to get the same end between the speaker and the listener. Pragmatics is the study which reveals all those things. Conversational implicature is the term to call what is meant goes beyond than what is said. In many cases, there are many speakers who deliver a meaning which is not explicitly stated.
b. Research Focus
Every single thing that a speaker says has a meaning. However, the implication of each utterance can be different. Even, two listeners may have different implications because of that utterance. Place or situation the communication takes place can be the cause why both listeners have different interpretation. This is what is going to be observe by the researcher, the conversational implicature. Pragmatics is the suitable approach to conduct this research. Yule (1998:3) defines pragmatics as the study of contextual meaning. This study involves the interpretation of what people mean in particular context and how the context influences what is said. Then it would lead into how more gets communicated than is said. It means how listeners can make inferences about what is said in order to arrive at an interpretation of the speaker’s intended meaning.
c. Research Objectives
Based on the research focus, the objectives of the study are: 1. to describe the implied meanings of the conversational implicature used by Sherlock Holmes and Watson as the main characters in Guy Ritchie’s Sherlock Holmes (2009); 2. to describe the maxims of conversation used by Sherlock Holmes and Watson; 3. to describe the factors which affect the interpretation of the utterances used by the main characters.
d. Research Significance
Theoretically, this research is expected to
3. Literature Review
a. Theoretical Description
Fraser in Richards (1984) defines pragmatics as speaker-meaning and hearer-effects and how the two are related. The concepts and meaning which are communicated by speaker’s choice of particular words and constructions is...