* He defined the context of the scientific study of anthropology through his book Primitive Culture and Anthropology. * Considered by many to be a founding figure of the science of social anthropology. * He reintroduced the term animism (the faith in the individual soul or anima of all things, and natural manifestations) into common use. * Introduced the concept of “survivals” in human development.
* Father of Modern Anthropology
* Father of American Anthropology
* He pioneered the concept of life group displays, commonly known as dioramas. * He argued the diminished significance of theories of racial distinction between humans. * He developed his theory of relativism, debunking the prevailing beliefs that Western Civilization is superior to less complex societies. * He introduced the principle of "cultural relativism". The idea that each culture was the product of a unique and particular history.
Henry Lewis Morgan
* He introduced a critical link between social progress and technological progress. * Developed the theory of social evolution.
* He emphasized the centrality of family and property relations. * He invented the study of kinship terminology.
* He recognized three stages in the cultural evolution of man: savagery, barbarism, and civilization. * He developed the theory of cultural evolution of man.
* He postulated that there were also stages in the development of family structures—from promiscuity and incestuous relationships through group marriage, and polygamy to the most advanced stage of monogamous marriage
* First to apply anthropology to the study of advanced societies. * She studied the culture of Japan “at a distance”.
* She argued that morality was relative to the values of the culture in which one operated. * Created the “Culture and Personality” approach.
* Author of “Patterns of Culture”, “The Races of Mankind" and “The...