Continuing Crisis in Tertiary Education of Developing and Transition Countries

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CONTINUING CRISIS IN TERTIARY EDUCATION OF DEVELOPING AND TRANSITION COUNTRIES Persisting Inequalities
There are a lot of problems already mentioned in tertiary education of developing and transition countries but inequalities in many forms are very persistent and evident in developing and transition countries. We feel these inequalities being included in the developing countries. Some of those inequalities are the following: 1. Caste- The unequal treatment for the students that come from the tribe or ethnic groups are very evident. -In Venezuela, the widespread preferential admission for students of University professors and employees is an example of positive discrimination in favor of the children of the already privileged intellectual elite. - In India, efforts to reduce barriers that linked to caste but still the representation of students from different tribes and castes are still low. 2. Language – contribute to social inequality in countries where tertiary education is conducted in a language different from that of primary and secondary education. In Sri Lanka and Tanzania- English is the language of tertiary instruction but French is used in their everyday’s living. 3. Gender- it is also a barrier in the education of tertiary level. Gender differences in tertiary enrollment in some of the countries are very visible as shown in the table: Gender Disparity in Enrollment and Teacher Deployment, Selected Countries, 1997 Region and country| Combined primary- and secondary-level gross enrollment ratio| Tertiary-level students per 1,000 population| Proportion of women in tertiary education (percent)| Share of female teachers (percent)| | female| male| female| male| | Secondary| Tertiary| AfricaBotswanaMadagascarSouth AfricaAsiaCambodiaChinaIndiaIndonesiaKuwaitYemen, Rep.Latin AmericaBrazilColombiaGuyanaIndustrial CountriesAustriaNew ZealandUnited States| 935140689562796834-----898710210899| 905147869881856990-----8785104105100| 5.51.614.60.33.34.88.125.91.111.718.28.928.249.958.4| 6.41.915.91.76.17.915.219.37.310.117.110.231.340.148.2| 47454816--36356213535248485656| 43--642736---3754------4862555756| 28293717----------382831264039| Source: United Nations (2000)

Under the gender inequalities, it includes also the lodging or location of institutions. Universities are typically located in urban areas limiting access for rural female students since families may be less inclined to permit daughters than sons to live outside the home in mixed-gender environment in urban areas. 4. Family Income- The major determinants of inequality in tertiary education. -In the availability of free tertiary education, still families with high income are the ones who have the higher chance or opportunity for free tertiary education. -The children of high and middle income families who can afford to cost of high quality private secondary schools are usually better prepared to pass the public university entrance examination giving access to free higher education. -Families who can afford private tutoring in secondary level have better chance in competitive entrance examination that will avail their children for free tertiary education. The raised of fees in tertiary level made a noticeable decrease in the enrollment that is being felt not only in the Philippines but in other developing and transition countries. Remedies/Actions made by different countries to achieve equality in tertiary education. * In India despite special provision free tertiary education and reservation of places for students from scheduled castes and tribes, The actual percentage of enrolled students from this groups are still low because of the proportionally small number of minority students who completed primary and secondary education. * In the Philippines the free tertiary education are mostly availed by those students with a families of higher income that...
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