Contact Process for Sulfuric Acid

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9.1 Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid

1. State uses of sulphuric acid in daily life.
- lead acid batteries in automobiles and for home use
- extraction of elements from ores
- manufacturing of fertilizers 

2.The following shows an incomplete flow chart of the Contact process. a)

b)Chemical equation

3. Briefly explain the sources of sulphuric dioxide gas in atmosphere. -Sulphur dioxide is produced mainly from the combustion of fossil fuels that contain Sulphur , such as coal and oil. 

4. State two effect of sulphuric dioxide on the environment. -Sulphur dioxide can cause acid rain that seriously affects ecosystems -can form secondary particles (sulphates) that cause haze and reduce visibility.

9.2 Manufacture of Ammonia and its salts

1. State uses of ammonia in daily life.
-To make explosive chemicals such as TNT
-In the rubber industry, ammonia is used to prevent the cogalation of latef

2. State physical properties of ammonia.
-Ammonia,(NH₃) is a colourless and pinyentgas
-It is less dense than air
-It is highly soluble in water.

3.The diagram below show ]s a flow chart to prepare nitric acid and fertiliser Z from ammonia.

Fertiliser Z
Fertiliser Z
Nitric acid
Nitric acid

Process A Process B

a) Name the process A
b) Write the chemical equation to represent the formation of ammonia in process A -
c) Name the process B
d) What is the catalyst used in process B?
e)Write the chemical of fertiliser Z?

4 Ammonia is a valuable source in the manufacture of ammonium fertilisers. a) State one example of ammonium fertiliser
-Ammonium nitrate

b) Suggest an acid used to produce the fertiliser stated in a. -
c) Write a chemical equation to represent the formation of fertiliser in a. -

9.3 Alloys

1. Using suitable illustrations, explain why metals are ductile and malleable. -Can be draw into long wires
-Can be hammered to from any shape.

2. State the meaning of alloy
-Alloys are materials that contain more than one element .Usually, alloys are mixtures of metallic elements – two or more metals.

3. List composition, properties and uses of alloys.
Alloys | Composition| Properties| Uses|
Alnico| Fe, Al, Ni, Co| Strongly magnetic| Permanent magnets| Constantan| Cu, Ni| High resistance| Thermocouple|
Copper-nickel| Cu, Ni| Hard, shining and lasting| Coins| Brass| Cu, Zn| Doesn’t corrode easily | Ship boilers| Bronze| Cu, Sn| Very hard and strong| Ship propellers|
Duralumin| Al, Cu, Mn, Mg| Strong and light| Aircraft bodies|

4. a) Draw the arrangement of atoms in:
i) pure iron ii)steel

a) Based on the drawing, explain why steel alloy is harder than pure iron. -

5. The body of LRT train is made of alloy Q.

a) Name two element in alloy Q

b)What the properties of alloy Q that make it suitable to construct the body of LRT train? -Strong, hard and light

6. The table below shows the composition of two alloys.
Alloy| Composition|
Alloy P| Tin, copper, antimony|
Brass alloy| Substance Q , substance R|

a) Name alloy P

b) Name the substances Q and R
Q: Copper
R: Zinc

c) State two uses of brass alloy
- Ship boilers
-Ship propellers

9.4 Synthetic Polymers.

1. What is a polymer?
- Polymers are large molecules a made up of identical sub-units of monomers which are joined together by covalent bonds.

2. Give two examples of natural polymers and their respective monomers -Fat in cell...
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