Consumer Purchased Behavior

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  • Topic: Sense, Perception, Sensory system
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  • Published : April 11, 2013
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Chapter 2

Perception

2-1

Learning Objectives
When you finish this chapter, you should understand
why:

• Perception is a three-stage process that translates
raw stimuli into meaning.

• Products and commercial messages often appeal to
our senses, but we won’t be influenced by most of
them.

• The design of a product today is a key driver of its
success or failure.

2-2

Learning Objectives (continued)

• Subliminal advertising is a controversial―but
largely ineffective―way to talk to consumers.

• We interpret the stimuli to which we do pay
attention according to learned patterns and
expectations.

• Marketers use symbols to create meaning.

2-3

Sensation and Perception

• Sensation is the immediate
response of our sensory receptors
(eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and
fingers) to basic stimuli (light,
color, sound, odor, and texture).

• Perception is the process by which
sensations are selected,
organized, and interpreted.

2-4

Figure 2.1 Perceptual Process

We receive external
stimuli through
our five senses

2-5

Hedonic Consumption

• Hedonic consumption:
multisensory, fantasy,
and emotional aspects
of consumers’
interactions with
products

• Marketers use impact of
sensations on
consumers’ product
experiences
2-6

Sensory Systems

• Our world is a
symphony of colors,
sounds, odors, tastes

• Advertisements,
product packages,
radio and TV
commercials,
billboards provide
sensations

2-7

Vision

• Color provokes emotion
• Reactions to color are
biological and cultural

• Color in the United States
is becoming brighter and
more complex

• Trade dress: colors
associated with specific
companies
2-8

Vertical-Horizontal Illusion

• Which line is longer:
horizontal or vertical?

• Answer: both lines are
same length

2-9

Scents
Odors create mood and
promote memories:

• Coffee = childhood,
home

• Cinnamon buns = sex
Marketers use scents:

• Inside products
• In promotions (e.g.,
scratch ‘n sniff)
2-10

Sound
Sound affects people’s feelings and behaviors

• Phonemes: individual sounds that might be
more or less preferred by consumers
•Example: “i” brands are “lighter” than “a”
brands

• Muzak uses sound and music to create mood
•High tempo = more stimulation
•Slower tempo = more relaxing

2-11

Touch

• Haptic senses―or “touch”―is the most basic
of senses; we learn this before vision and
smell

• Haptic senses affect product experience and
judgment

• Kinsei engineering is a Japanese philosophy
that translates customers’ feelings into design
elements

2-12

Table 2.1 Tactile-Quality Associations

Perception

Male

Female
Fine

High class

Wool

Silk

Low class

Denim

Cotton
Coarse

Heavy

Light

2-13

Taste

• Flavor houses develop
new concoctions for
consumer palates

• Cultural changes
determine desirable
tastes

• The more respect we have
for ethnic dishes, the more
spicy food we desire

2-14

Exposure

• Exposure occurs when a stimulus comes
within range of someone’s sensory receptors

• We can concentrate, ignore, or completely
miss stimuli

• Cadillac’s 5 second ad

2-15

Sensory Thresholds

• Psychophysics: science that focuses on how
the physical environment is integrated into
our personal, subjective world

• Absolute threshold: the minimum amount of
stimulation that can be detected on a given
sensory channel

2-16

Differential Threshold

• The ability of a sensory
system to detect changes
or differences between two
stimuli
• Minimum difference between
two stimuli is the j.n.d. (just
noticeable difference)

• Example: packaging
updates must be subtle
enough over time to keep
current customers
2-17

Subliminal Perception

• Subliminal perception occurs when stimulus
is below the level of the consumer’s
awareness.

• Rumors of subliminal advertising are...
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