Consumer Perception to Price and Quality

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The 22 Immutable Laws of Marketing

Al Ries and Jack Trout
The 22 Immutable Laws of Marketing
Violate Them at Your Own Risk
Al Ries and Jack Trout

Dedicated to the elimination of myths and misconceptions from the marketing process

A DF Books NERDs Release
THE 22 IMMUTABLE LAWS OF MARKETING. Copyright © 1993 by Al Ries and Jack Trout. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. By payment of the required fees, you have been granted the non-exclusive, non-transferable right to access and read the text of this e-book on-screen. No part of this text may be reproduced, transmitted, down-loaded, decompiled, reverse engineered, or stored in or introduced into any information storage and retrieval system, in any form or by any means, whether electronic or mechanical, now known or hereinafter invented, without the express written permission

Contents

Introduction
1. The Law of Leadership
2. The Law of the Category
3. The Law of the Mind
4. The Law of Perception
5. The Law of Focus
6. The Law of Exclusivity
7. The Law of the Ladder
8. The Law of Duality
9. The Law of the Opposite
10. The Law of Division
11. The Law of Perspective
12. The Law of Line Extension
13. The Law of Sacrifice
14. The Law of Attributes

file:///F|/Business/Marketing/22 Immutable Laws Of Marketing.html

15. The Law of Candor
16. The Law of Singularity
17. The Law of Unpredictability
18. The Law of Success
19. The Law of Failure
20. The Law of Hype
21. The Law of Acceleration
22. The Law of Resources
Warning

About the Authors
Credits
Copyright
About the Publisher

Introduction

Billions of dollars have been wasted on marketing programs that couldn’t possibly work, no matter how clever or brilliant. Or how big the budgets.
Many managers assume that a well-designed, well-executed, well-financed marketing program will work. It’s not necessarily so. And you don’t have to look further than IBM, General Motors, and Sears, file:///F|/Business/Marketing/22 Immutable Laws Of Marketing.html (3 of 77)4/20/2006 1:41:49 AM

file:///F|/Business/Marketing/22 Immutable Laws Of Marketing.html

Roebuck to find examples.
The tools and techniques used at Sears, Roebuck might have been right, sometimes even spectacular. And the managers who ran the GM programs might have been the best and the brightest. Certainly the best and the brightest people traditionally have been attracted to the biggest and the best companies, like GM and IBM. But the programs themselves were based on assumptions that were flawed. John Kenneth Galbraith, when asked what he believed was America’s perception of the country’s giant corporations, said that we feared corporate power. Today, we fear corporate incompetence! All companies are in trouble. Especially big companies. General Motors is a good example. Over the past decade the company paid a terrible price for destroying the identity of its brands. (It priced them alike as well as made them look alike.) Ten share points evaporated, which translates into about $10 billion a year in sales.

GM’S problem wasn’t a competitive problem, although competition did increase. It wasn’t a quality problem either, although GM obviously wasn’t delivering top-notch quality. It was very definitely a marketing problem.

When a company makes a mistake today, footprints quickly show up on its back as competition runs off with its business. To get the business back, the company has to wait for others to make mistakes and then figure out how to exploit the situation.

So how do you avoid making mistakes in the first place? The easy answer is to make sure your programs are in tune with the laws of marketing. (Although we have defined our ideas and concepts under the “marketing” banner, they are useful no matter where you are in a company, and no matter what product or service your company is selling.)

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