• Consumers have both innate and acquired needs. Give examples of each kind of need and show how the same purchase can serve to fulfill either or both kinds of needs.
• Specify both innate and acquired needs that would be useful bases for developing promotional strategies for: o global positioning systems
o sunglasses with built-in earphones and an MP3 player o recruiting high school seniors to join the armed forces o a new super-compact and powerful digital camera
Formation of new goals
Failure to achieve a goal
• Why are consumers’ needs and goals constantly changing? What factors influence the formation of new goals?
• How can marketers use consumers’ failures to achieve goals in developing promotional appeals for specific products and services? Give examples.
Measuring human motives
Motivational research compared to qualitative research
• How do researchers identify and “measure” human motives? Give examples.
• Does motivational research differ from qualitative research? Discuss.
• What are the strengths and weaknesses of motivational research?
Need for power, affiliation and achievement
• Find two advertisements that depict two different defense mechanisms and discuss their effectiveness.
• Find three advertisements that appeal to the needs for power, affiliation, and achievement and discuss their effectiveness.
• Most human needs are dormant much of the time. What factors cause their arousal? Find two examples of ads that are designed to arouse latent consumer needs and discuss their effectiveness.
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