Consumer Behavoiur

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Unit II: Perception – Nature of perception – perception and Marketing Strategy; Motivation – Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy; Personality and Emotion.

Unit – II – Perception – Motivation in Consumer Behavior

Consumer Motivation
Needs and Motivation
• Needs are the essence of the marketing concept. Marketers do not create needs but can make consumers aware of needs. • Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action. Figure 4.1 Model of the Motivation Process

Types of Needs
• Innate Needs
– Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered primary needs or motives • Acquired Needs
– Learned in response to our culture or environment. Are generally psychological and considered secondary needs Goals
• The sought-after results of motivated behavior
• Generic goals are general categories of goals that consumers see as a way to fulfill their needs • Product-specific goals are specifically branded products or services that consumers select as their goals

Goals Structure for Weight Control


The Selection of Goals
• The goals selected by an individual depend on their: – Personal experiences
– Physical capacity
– Prevailing cultural norms and values
– Goal’s accessibility in the physical and social environment

The Dynamic Nature of Motivation
• Needs are never fully satisfied
• New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied
• People who achieve their goals set new and higher goals for themselves Substitute Goals
• Are used when a consumer cannot attain a specific goal he/she anticipates will satisfy a need • The substitute goal will dispel tension
• Substitute goals may actually replace the primary goal over time Frustration
• Failure to achieve a goal may result in frustration. • Some adapt; others adopt defense mechanisms to protect their ego. Defense Mechanism
• Methods by which people mentally redefine frustrating situations to protect their self-images and their self-esteem

Defense Mechanisms

Arousal of Motives
• Physiological arousal
• Emotional arousal
• Cognitive arousal
• Environmental arousal
Philosophies Concerned with Arousal of Motives
• Behaviorist School
– Behavior is response to stimulus
– Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored – Consumer does not act, but reacts
• Cognitive School
– Behavior is directed at goal achievement
– Needs and past experiences are reasoned, categorized, and transformed into attitudes and beliefs

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs

Needs Associated with Inanimate Objects:
Acquisition, Conservancy, Order, Retention, Construction
Needs Reflecting Ambition, Power,
Accomplishment, and Prestige:
Superiority, Achievement, Recognition, Exhibition, Infavoidance Needs Connected with Human Power:
Dominance, Deferrence, Similance, Autonomy, Contrariance
Sado-Masochistic Needs :
Aggression, Abasement
Needs Concerned with Affection between People:
Affiliation, Rejection, Nurturance, Succorance, Play
Needs Concerned with Social Intercourse:
Cognizance, Exposition

A Trio of Needs
• Power
– individual’s desire to control environment
• Affiliation
– need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging
• Achievement
– need for personal accomplishment
– closely related to egoistic and self-actualization needs Measurement of Motives
• Researchers rely on a combination of techniques
• Combination of behavioral, subjective, and qualitative data • Construction of a measurement scale can be complex

Motivational Research
• Qualitative research designed to uncover consumers’ subconscious or hidden motivations • Attempts to discover underlying feelings, attitudes, and...
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