Consumer Behaviour

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Consumer behavior
Simona Romani

Chapter 1 – Consumer motives and values

Motivation (I)
Motivation is a driving force that moves individuals to take a particular action; this driving force is produced by a state of tension, which exists as a result of an unfulfilled need. Need Satisfaction Homeostasis We strive for a state of equilibrium (Homeostasis) Physiological needs (e.g. hunger) move us away from this But so do social and psychological needs Deprivation

Motivation (II)
Biogenic drives: such as hunger & thirst originate from our physiology. Psychogenic drives: such as to achieve a certain status originate from our social & cultural environment and psychological make up. Belk et al (2003) argue that want (or desire), which is fundamentally social in nature, is the major driving force or motivation behind much of our contemporary consumption.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (I)
Self Actualisation Needs

Aesthetic Needs Cognitive Needs Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (II)
Needs at one level must be at least partially satisfied before those at the next level become important in determining our actions Phisiological needs come first; then, individuals turn their attention to the fulfillment of more advanced psychogenic requirements Social acceptance Self esteem Need for cognition Creativity and aesthetic drives Self actualization

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and voluntary simplicity (I)
An application to the voluntary simplicity phenomenon

Voluntary simplicity means choosing to limit material consumption in order to free one’s resources, primarily money and time, to seek satisfaction through nonmaterial aspects of life (Etzioni, 1998; Shaw & Newholm, 2002).

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and voluntary simplicity (II) Bilanci di giustizia
In controtendenza con la società di oggi, consumando meno e meglio si guadagna in qualità di vita reimpossessandosi del proprio tempo, gustando il piacere dell'autoproduzione, riscoprendo tradizioni e scoprendo nuove culture. Questo sono i "Bilanci di Giustizia": monitorare il proprio consumo per cambiare l'economia dalle piccole cose, dai gesti quotidiani.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and voluntary simplicity (III) Etzioni (1998) suggests that Maslow’s hierarchy explains the rise of voluntary simplicity for the privileged members of advanced capitalist societies. Voluntary simplicity appeals to those whose basic needs are satisfied and who can be assured they will be met into the future. He states, “Voluntary Simplicity is thus a choice a successful corporate lawyer, not a homeless person, faces . . .” Zavestoski (2002) adapts and expands Maslow’s hierarchy by dividing self-actualization into two distinct facets: the need for efficacy and the need for authenticity. He asserts that all needs in the hierarchy except authenticity can be met through consumption. In interviews with individuals who had demonstrated interest in taking a course on voluntary simplicity, he finds support for the notion that people who recognize that their needs for authenticity are not being met through consumption will seek out other means (such as voluntary simplicity) for meeting those needs.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and voluntary simplicity (IV) Maslow (1968) talks about two separate types of needs:
deficiency needs - prompt behavior that is directed toward a specific goal, satisfying the need. They are episode specific, and once the need is met the motivation toward meeting that need subsides for a time growth needs - there is no end state except to continue to grow. The motivation toward growth can never be satisfied and never subsides.

Maslow points out that all human beings share the same deficit needs, but the way each individual seeks self-actualization (arguably a growth need) is unique to that individual.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and voluntary simplicity (V)
This distinction, combined with Maslow’s...
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