Consumer Behavior

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Q1. (a) What is the difference between primary and secondary research? Under what circumstances might the availability of secondary data make primary research unnecessary? Q1. (b) What is opinion leadership?

Q2. (a) What are the strengths and weaknesses of motivational research? Q2. (b) What is social class?
Q3. (a) What is the relationship between Brand loyalty and brand equity? What role do concepts play in the development of marketing strategies? Q3. (b) Sony is introducing a new 27- inch TV with a picture- in- picture feature. How should the company position and advertise the product to (i) Generation- X Consumers (ii) Affluent’ baby boomers. Q4. (a): Are there any circumstances in which information from advertisement likely to be more influential than word of mouth? Q4. (b) Find two ads that depict two different defence mechanisms and discuss their effectiveness. Q5. (a) How can marketers use measures of recognition and recall to study the extent of consumer learning? Q5. (b) What is market Segmentation? How is the practice of market segmentation related to the marketing concept? Q6. (a) What is cross- cultures consumer analysis? How can a multinational company use cross- cultural research to design each factor in its marketing mix? Q6. (b) How should marketers promote products and services to working women? What appeals should they use? Explain. Q6. (c) For what kinds of audiences could you consider using comparative advertising? Why?

1. What is the difference between primary and secondary research? Under what circumstances might the availability of secondary data make primary research unnecessary?
Primary Sources
Some definitions of primary sources:
1 Primary sources are original materials on which other research is based 2 They are usually the first formal appearance of results in the print or electronic literature (for example, the first publication of the results of scientific investigations is a primary source.) 3 They present information in its original form, neither interpreted nor condensed nor evaluated by other writers. 4 They are from the time period (for example, something written close to when what it is recording happened is likely to be a primary source.) 5 Primary sources present original thinking, report on discoveries, or share new information.

Some examples of primary sources:
1 Scientific journal articles reporting experimental research results 2 Proceedings of Meetings, Conferences and Symposia.
3 Technical reports
4 Dissertations or theses (may also be secondary)
5 Patents
6 Sets of data, such as census statistics
7 Works of literature (such as poems and fiction)
8 Diaries
9 Autobiographies
10 Interviews, surveys and fieldwork
11 Letters and correspondence
12 Speeches
13 Newspaper articles (may also be secondary)
14 Government documents
15 Photographs and works of art
16 Original documents (such as birth certificate or trial transcripts) 17 Internet communications on email, listservs, and newsgroups

This means gathering information directly from the consumers which could involve - using questionnaire.
- using focus group [ face to face interview ]
- telephone interviews
- panel interviews
- person to person interviews
And so on.

- from the primary source.
- original information.
- current data.
- reliable.
- clearly defined.

- time consuming.
- expensive process.
- difficult to procure, sometimes.

- due to time/ cost factors, the amount of data gathering is restricted.


Secondary Sources
Secondary sources are less easily defined than primary sources. What some define as a secondary source, others define as a tertiary source. Nor is it always easy to distinguish primary from secondary...
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