1. Define learning and outline the principle elements involved Definition:
“Learning refers to a relatively permanent change in behaviour which comes with experience”. Firstly, the “behaviour” is used to refer to nonobservable cognitive activity as well as to overt actions. Secondly, learning results in relatively permanent changes in behavior. This excludes changes brought about by fatigue or other short-lived influences such as drug-induced behavior. Thirdly, we must exclude the effects of physical damage to the body or brain and of natural human growth.
Types of learned behavior
a) Physical Behaviour
People learn many physical behaviors in everyday life. Firstly, all healthy humans learn to walk, talk and socialize. Secondly, they learn methods of responding to various purchase situations, such as learning to act dissatisfied when hearing the first price quote on a car. Thirdly, modelling is a part of this behaviour, in which they imitate other individual behavior, such as celebrities. b) Symbolic Learning & Problem-Solving
Symbols lead to marketing-oriented activity which will allow marketers to communicate with consumers through such about brands (difference between Nike and Adidas), the slogans (Tetley Make Tea Bags, Make Tea) and signs. c) Affective Learning
It means that consumers learn many of their wants, goals, and motives as well as what products satisfy these needs. Specifically, it refers to emotional factors – like or dislike, which will influence the tendency to purchase. This can be complex – for example, consider attitudes towards alcohol. In the majority of cases, this is viewed as a relaxant, to be consumed with friends socially. However, if there was an alcoholic in the family, a person may learn that alcohol is a bad thing and not drink. Besides, other aspects of the consumer may be an influence – religion, country of origin.
Principle elements of learning
Consumers learn in several basic ways but the following four...