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Constitution of India

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  • September 2010
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CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

The Constitution of India, according to Ivor Jennings, is “The longest and the most detailed in the world.” Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishing the structure, procedures, powers and duties of the government. It spells out fundamental rights, directive principles and duties of citizens. The constitution of India was drafted by the Constituent Assembly. The drafting committee of the constitution consists of seven members with Dr. B. R. Ambedkar as the chairman. The Assembly took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to pass the draft of the constitution. It was finally adopted on November 26, 1949 and it came into force on January 26, 1950. The date January 26 was chosen to commemorate the declaration of independence of 1930. It declares the Union of India sovereign, socialist, secular and democratic republic. It assures its citizens of justice, equality and liberty, and promotes among all fraternity. India celebrates the adoption of the Constitution on January 26 each year as Republic Day. It is the longest written Constitution of any sovereign country in the world. It comprises 448 Articles divided into 22 parts and 12 schedules. Being the supreme law of Country, every law enacted by the government must conform to the Constitution. Many articles of the Constitution of India were borrowed from the Government of India Act 1935. To a large extent the Act of 1935 was the basic structure on which the new Constitution was framed. Many ideas were incorporated from the Constitution of Britain, Ireland, USA, South Africa, Canada, etc. Although our Constitution has adopted some provisions from many foreign Constitutions, yet our drafting committee has tried to make the Indian Constitution a document which is the most suitable to the Indian condition and environment. According to Jawaharlal Nehru, “whatever system of government we may establish...