This experiment aims to test the law of conservation of momentum by using cart and track system.

Procedure

1. Put two carts onto the track.
2. Hit the button on the cart so that they start to move at opposite directions. 3. Find the position where the carts hit the end at the same time. 4. Find the distance that each cart traveled.

5. Repeat step 1-4 with 500g and 1000g weights on one of the carts. Data and Calculation
m1m2=x2x1
The carts were measured to be 12cm each and weighting 500g each. And the total length of the track is 100cm. x1+x2 has a value of 76cm.

Theoretical Value of x1 and x2

0 grams of weight
500500=3838
500 grams of weight
5001000=25135023
1000 grams of weight
5001500=1957

Experimental value of x1 and x2
0 grams of weight
x1= 36 x2=40
500 grams of weight
x1= 24 x2=52
1000 grams of weight
x1= 20 x2=56

%error
0 grams of weight = 5.26%
500 grams of weight = 3.51%
1000 grams of weight = 2.63%

Conclusion
The equation m1x1=m2x2 or the conservation of momentum is proven true by this experiment. Even though there are % errors in these trials, these % error are insignificant. There are many sources of error in this experiment. Whether the carts hit the end of the track at the same time is hard to measure as it is measured by human reaction instead of the device itself. Furthermore, there are net external forces working on this system. The track itself was also not perfectly leveled.

...Impulsive Force Model Worksheet 2: Quantitative Conservation of Momentum
Name: ______________________________________
1. Kim holds a 2.0 kg air rifle loosely and fires a bullet of mass 1.0 g. The muzzle velocity of the bullet is 150 m/s. Find the recoil speed of the gun.
Momentumconservation equation:
Recoil speed =________________
2. If the girl in the previous question holds the gun tightly against her body, the recoil speed is less. Calculate the new recoil speed for the 48 kg girl.
Momentumconservation equation:
Recoil speed - _______________
3. In a freight yard a train is being put together from freight cars. An empty freight car, coasting at 10 m/s, strikes a loaded car that is stationary, and the cars couple together. Each of the cars has a mass of 3000 kg when empty, and the loaded car contains 12,000 kg of canned soda (a year's supply for the Physics class). Find the speed of the two coupled railcars.
Momentumconservation equation:
Speed = ___________________
4. An astronaut of mass 80. kg carries an empty oxygen tank of mass 10. kg. He throws the tank away from himself with a speed of 2.0 m/s. Find the speed with which he moves off into space.
Momentumconservation equation:
Speed = ___________________
5. A tennis player returns a 30. m/s serve straight back at 25. m/s, after making...

...Collision and Conservation of Momentum
Collision, a normal phenomenon in our daily life, also is familiar by people in physics field. As we can imagine, there are many interesting among collision cause our attention to think about what is this exactly about and how does is work or maybe why is that such as there maybe some neutron stars intensely hurtling in outer space or two small eggs hitting each other. Outer space is filled with infinite particles that maybe as small as things people cant find out or measure so far and collisions are mostly about those small particles moving and hitting. For example, light wouldn’t be so bright according to its mass and the reason that it delivers light is because collision -- namely fraction – to produce photon and then integrate light. A collision is an isolated event in which two o more moving bodies exert forces on each other for a relatively short time. Even though, many people would refer collision to accidents where there are object badly crashed, what my topic will be focused on are those phenomenon among physics world. Moreover, when scientists use the word of “collision”, they try to imply nothing about the magnitude of the forces. Collision was ever a hot topic drawing many physicists’ attention. After plenty of delving, physicists establish the momentumconservation law. Collision is a typical characteristic in microcosm in physics. Fortunately, collision can be...

...has momentum. Momentum is equal to the objects mass times its velocity. Momentum is conserved, which means that “momentum before an event equals momentum immediately after, or pi=pf”. Since pi=pf, then pai+ pbi = paf+ pbf and (ma* vai)+ (mb* vbi)= (ma* vaf) + (mb * vbf). Having velocity simply means that an object has a speed and direction. Using the formula “(ma * vai) + (mb * vbi) = (ma* vaf) + (mb * vbf,)” the final velocity of two carts after they collide can be found. The first cart is 1.5 kg traveling at 0.7 m/s and the cart that it collides with is 1 kg and at rest, so (1.5 kg * 0.7 m/s) +(1 kg * 0)= (1.5 kg * vf) + (1 * vf). 1.05=2.5 (vf) so the final velocity is 2.38 m/s. This collision would look like:
1.5 kg, 0.7 m/s 1 kg, 0m/s m1+m2=1.5 kg, vf=2.38 m/s
Experimental Design
The purpose of this lab is to determine the mathematical equation relating the total system momentum of 2 carts before a collision (Pi) to the total system momentum of the 2 carts after the collision (Pf.). Some constants may be: the weight of the bars, the carts, the point at which the carts may start, the measurements being used, etc. After conducting 6 trails with the moving car being a different mass each time, the total system momentum before and after the collision was found. This makes the...

...velocity; which will be used to calculate the momentum.
We will also explore how mass impacts in the change of momentum, and if there can be a non-changing impulse between the two carts with different masses.
Data Refer
Experimental results: " Analyzing Exploding Carts - Lab Activity" Handout (back part)
Materials
Stopwatch
1 meter stick
1 Cart
1 Cart with string
2 blocks/books
1 Mass block of 1.0kg
1 Mass block of 0.5kg
Method
Setup materials: Construct horizontal track, using the meter stick to create it. To surround it (and to prevent the carts from falling), set the 2 blocks/books at the edge of each side. Set the string to its first module.
Total track should be 1.0m; however, distance travelled by the carts will be 0.52m. Record the interval as d in Table 1.
Put the carts next to each other, with the string separating them (but still together). Mark this location with a small piece of tape if necessary. Run a few tests until the time for the both of them to cover different distances is the same (this is because they have different acceleration and masses).
In order to determine the velocity, measure the time it takes for each cart to travel the known d.
After this, repeat the trials; but add 0.5kg of mass. Repeat until timing is precise.
Once this finished, calculate the velocity of all trials; v1 and v2, using d1 (distance travelled by cart 1) and d2 (distance travelled by cart 2). Also calculate...

...Solving Momentum Problems
Momentum:
For lack of a better definition, momentum is a measure of the “oomph” that an object has due to its
motion. The more mass an object has and the more speed it has the more momentum it has. The
formula for momentum is simply:
p=mv
Where p is momentum, m is mass, and v is velocity
Note that momentum is a vector quantity, so it is possible to have negative momentum. Any object that
is moving in the direction opposite that defined as positive will have a negative momentum. You can
also break a momentum vector into components or resolve momentum vectors into a single resultant.
Momentum is a conserved quantity. The momentum of a system will not change unless an outside
impulse is applied to it. If the system remains isolated, its total momentum will not change. That does
not mean that individual parts of a system cannot interact with each other and exchange momentums.
Conservation of Momentum is a basic physics principle that allows us to solve many interesting
problems.
The unit of momentum is a kg•m/s
Impulse:
The only way to change momentum is through impulse. Impulse is an outside force applied for a
specific time. Obviously the harder you push and the longer...

...CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM PRACTICAL WRITE UP
AIM: To investigate if momentum is conserved in two-dimensional interactions within an isolated system.
HYPOTHESIS: Without the effects of friction the momentum will be conserved in the isolated system. In all three experiments the momentum before the interaction will equal the momentum after the interaction.
METHOD: An air hockey table was set up and a video camera on a tripod was placed over the air hockey table. The camera was positioned so it was directly above the air hockey table facing downwards. The air hockey table was turned on and two near identical pucks were placed on the table, one at one end of the table and one in the centre. The puck at the end of the table was launched by hand towards the other puck which was stationary. On impact the first puck continued in motion and initiated the motion of the second puck. The collision was filmed on the video camera. After this a second experiment was set up with the same two pucks, but this time they were placed in either corner of the air hockey table. They were launched at the same time into the centre of the table, where they collided and bounced off each other and this collision was also filmed. In the final experiment the two pucks were replaced with larger pucks with Velcro around the edges. Like the previous experiment the two pucks were placed in two of the corners of the table...

...What is momentum?
Momentum of a body is defined as the mass multiplied by the velocity of this object.
Momentum= m x v
Momentum and Newton’s second law of motion:
The resultant force is proportional to the change in momentum per a second.
We know that force = mass x acceleration. So F (mv-mu)/t
F m (v-u)/t = ma so F=kma
Momentum is a vector quantity:
Momentum has a direction as well as a magnitude
Momentum and Newton’s first law of motion:
An object remains at rest or in uniform motion unless acted upon by a force.
If an object had a constant momentum, it will have a constant amount of force needed to that will mean that no resultant force acting on it. So it will have a constant velocity unless the mass changes.
Momentum key points
Unit of momentum:
Kgms-1
Symbol of momentum:
P
But what is momentum as a physical quantity?
Momentum is the measure of how much force is needed to stop the moving object or change its velocity (speed or direction)
Momentum is found in lots of examples from our everyday lives. To understand what momentum is we look at two colliding objects. Each object is moving with a certain velocity and has a certain mass. To stop this object a certain force must be applied to counter the...

...Abstract:
In this experiment, two object collided both elastically and in inelastically, the purpose of this experiment is to study the principle of conservation of momentum in collisions using two bodies. We also calculated the amount of kinetic energy in elastic and inelastic collisions before and after the collision.
Introduction:
When bodies collide with each other, the total momentum p = mv, is always conserved regardless of the type of collision provided no external forces are present. There are two types of collisions. In an elastic collision, both the kinetic energy and the momentum are conserved. An inelastic collision is one in which only the momentum is conserved. Most collisions observed in nature are inelastic. A collision is completely inelastic when the bodies stick together after a collision.
Materials and Methods:
For this experiment we used an air table that provided a frictionless motion of the pucks, Velcro tape for the inelastic collision, graph paper and a ruler. At first, we lunched the pucks without the Velcro tape to collide them elastically, and they drew on the graph paper their path before and after the collision. The same thing happened in the second part of the experiment, but this time with the Velcro tape.
Result:
The elastic collision:
VA VB
Before 2 X 10-2 m/s 2.5 X 10-2 m/s
After 1.44 X 10-2 m/s 1.26 X 10-2 m/s
The inelastic collision:
VA VB
Before 1.7...

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