Running Head: Consequences of 9/11
Serious Consequences of September 11th
The University Of Findlay
This literature review examines five scholarly journal articles that thoroughly address how citizens across the nation were scarred forever, after the 2001 September 11th terrorist attack, which negatively impacted the entire United States. This community wide disaster was a life changing event which physically, mentally, and emotionally impacted thousands of people’s lives. Many disorders were developed from this tragic event, including post traumatic stress disorder, alcoholism, and depression.
Imagine standing on the ground watching two of the highest towers in New York City, standing at one thousand three-hundred sixty-eight feet high, fall right before your eyes. Horrifying, right? The 2001 attack was a life changing event, which physically, mentally, and emotionally impacted citizens in dramatic ways. That Tuesday September ninth morning, around 8:45AM, New York City was under attack. The attacks consisted of a series of coordinated suicide bombings by Al-Qaeda upon the United States. On that day, nineteen Islamist terrorists’ affiliated with al-Qaeda hijacked four commercial passenger jet airlines. The hijackers intentionally flew two of the commercial airliners, American Airline Flight 11 and United Airline Flight 175, into the North and South towers of the World Trade Center Complex in New York City. It instantly killed everyone on board, hundreds of others working in the buildings, and trapping even more people in the higher floors of the towers. Within two hours, both twin towers collapsed, destroying nearby buildings and damaging others. The attack killed nearly three thousand people that day “(9/11 Attacks, para. #2)”. After the September 11th terrorist attack, Americans were scarred forever. The survivors, residents, and citizens of the community-wide disaster are suffering various health problems because of this traumatic experience. Analysis of five scholarly journal articles found through library databases, the authors reveal how the citizens’ lives were negatively impacted from the attack of terrorism. In a research article Alcohol use, Mental Health Status and Psychological Well-being 2 Years After the World Trade Center Attacks in New York City by Richard Adams, Joseph Boscarino, and Sandro Galea (2006), three surveys were conducted to guide their study. The authors’ hypothesized how these disorders developed from the attack impacted individuals. The surveys were sent out by telephone using random digit dialing where they could reach citizens that were affected. To be eligible to answer the survey questions, an adult was selected based on the person with the most recent birthday in the household, and they had to speak English or Spanish for the surveyors to understand their responses. The article states that “They conducted surveys in October of 2002, in October 2003 another survey was sent out and the last survey sent out was in February of 2004,” (Adams et al, 2006, p. 206). The procedures and questions were all the same throughout each survey; nothing was different. Surveyors were interviewed and monitored throughout the survey to make sure the surveys were accurate. Within the survey, people were tested on various subjects. The conductors of this survey tested the association between alcohol use and the severity of post traumatic stress disorder symptoms due to the terrorist attack. “All together four thousand-forty nine people completed the surveys,” (Adams et al, p.206). This amount of people completing this survey is very high. In the first survey, they asked respondents whether their symptoms had bothered them or not. If they said no, they got a zero, but if they said somewhat, or not at all, their results were recorded between zero and six. Furthermore, if they answered a little bit, or a lot, they scored between seven and ten. In...
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