Where the tundra gives way to trees is called the evergreen coniferous forest or the taiga. A large portion of the earth is covered with coniferous forests extending to the warmer regions. The climate of the evergreen forests is pleasant in the summer with temperature rising into the eighties with cool evenings. Winters are usually very harsh dropping as low as -65 degrees Fahrenheit in some areas, but barely below freezing in others.
The rainfall of this biome varies from 12 to 33 inches per year. Some of this moisture comes from snow and sleet. Some of the smaller trees can become completely covered in snow. Oddly enough this snow covering protects the small trees from intense cold and dehydration that can occur.
The sides of many mountains are covered with coniferous forests. The trees on the sides of the mountain are thin so that the snow will slide off of them without breaking them. For protection from the wind, the trees grow very close together. Their sturdy, weather resistant needles can last for over a year. Needles resist harsh weather while conserving water and making food through photosynthesis. Even after an intense winter, as soon as the weather is warms enough the needles are ready to go back to work. The trees also have a tough and thick bark that can help resist summer fires.
The evergreens trees produce seeds in cones, and use wind for pollination. Since the trees are so close wind pollination is extremely easy. If you go into a densely populated forest in the spring you can often see that the air will be yellow because of floating pollen.
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