Government of India Act, 1935:
The Government of India Act, 1935 was formulated after long deliberations but was not fully promulgated but the only provincial part was introduced in the country, the central part was not introduced. The British govt deliberated on it and then the British parliament passed this law and then the king signed this law and this became the govt of India Act of 1935, under which the elections of 1937 would be held elections were held. The Muslim League criticized this law for a number of reasons and the same was the case with the Congress party but agreed to contest provincial elections to make advantage of the opportunities being provided under the govt of India Act.
The 1937 Elections:
Provincial elections were held in British India in the winter of 1936-37 as mandated by the Government of India Act 1935. Elections were held in eleven provinces - Madras, Central Provinces, Bihar, Orissa,United Provinces, Bombay Presidency, Assam, NWFP, Bengal,Punjab and Sindh. The final results of the elections were declared in February 1937. TheIndian National Congress emerged in power in all the provinces except for three - Bengal, Punjab, and Sindh. The All-India Muslim Leaguefailed to form the government in any province. The Congress ministries resigned in October and November 1939, in protest against Viceroy Lord Linlithgow's action of declaring India to be a belligerent in the Second World War without consulting the Indian people. Election Results
The 1937 election was the first in which large masses of Indians were eligible to participate. An estimated 30.1 million persons, including 4.25 million women, had acquired the right to vote (14% of the total population), and 15.5 million of these, including 917,000 women, actually did exercise their franchise. The results were in favour of the Indian National Congress. Of the total of 1,585 seats, it won 707 (44.6%). Among the 864 seats assigned "general" constituencies, it contested 739 and won 617. Of the 125 non-general constituencies contested by Congress, 59 were reserved for Muslims and in those the Congress won 25 seats, 15 of them in the entirely-Muslim North-West Frontier Province. The All-India Muslim League won 106 seats (6.7% of the total), placing it as second-ranking party. The only other party to win more than 5 percent of all the assembly seats was the Unionist Party (Punjab), with 101 seats. Madras Presidency
Main articles: Madras Presidency legislative assembly election, 1937 and Madras Presidency legislative council election, 1937 In Madras, the Congress won 74% of all seats, eclipsing the incumbent Justice Party (21 seats). Sindh
Main article: Sind legislative assembly election, 1937
The Sind Legislative Assembly had 60 members. The Sind United Party emerged the leader with 22 seats, and the Congress secured 8 seats. Mohammad Ali Jinnah had tried to set up a League Parliamentary Board in Sindh in 1936, but he failed, though 72% of the population was Muslim. Though 34 seats were reserved for Muslims, the Muslim League could secure none of them. United Provinces
The UP legislature consisted of a Legislative Council of 52 elected and 6 or 8 nominated members and a Legislative Assembly of 228 elected members: some from exclusive Muslim constituencies, some from "General" constituencies, and some "Special" constituencies. The Congress won a clear majority in the United Provinces, with 133 seats,  while the Muslim League won only 27 out of the 64 seats reserved for Muslims. Other provinces
In three additional provinces, Central Provinces, Bihar, and Orissa, the Congress won clear majorities. In Bombay, where it fell just short of gaining half the seats, it was able to draw on the support of some small pro- Congress groups to form a working majority. In Assam its 33 seats, out of a total of 108, also made it the strongest single party, though it was not in a position to form a ministry. It was part of...
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