Confucius, examination and foot binding
An analysis on ancient china society-Qing dynasty
China has 5000 years civilization. The Qing was the last and probably the strongest dynasty in Chinese history. It began at 1616 and ended at 1911. During the Qing period, imperial china has reached its zenith of power and influence. Especially during the reign of Qianlong, the territory of china was expanded to their greatest extent ever. Even some European thinkers admired Qing dynasty was the most successful and effectively organized government that the world had ever seen. Yet Qing dynasty was also the second time the whole nation was ruled by foreign imperialism. The impact from western was crucial during that period. After opium war, china has been forced to open ports to Europe and America. The opening of ports brought terrific economic revenue to foreigners; it also settled a bridge between eastern culture and western culture. The foreign religion had no importance throughout Chinese history until the middle of the 19th century; Christianity had made the first step during the Ming dynasty. During late 19th century, Christianity had spread out in Qing dynasty so successfully than ever. A lot of scholars and missionaries left their homelands and took the voyages to this mystery land. But what made Qing dynasty so great or not? Behind those greatness and foreign influences, what are the issues of society we should be notice as today? What are the important matters need to be attention? This essential importance of keeping wise and virtuous rulers was acknowledged by the Chinese from an early period. Like Ming dynasty, the Qing emperors also adopted the Confucianism as their official religion. Under the Confucian system, the education of Qing dynasty achieved significant advantages than its antecedents. During that period, the Chinese system of government and political economy has formed a large part of Confucian teachings. Why Confucian study was so important to the emperor of Qing dynasty or even to the whole society? The answer is obviously. First of all, imperialists believe they could seek the key of successful reign from Confucian study and the book of Confucianism helped them gain the necessary knowledge they needed. In general, the Chinese classics, or the Confucian system has covered philosophy, ontology, literature and history. This system obtained from Five Relations (relations between emperor and officer, father and son, husband and wife, older and younger brothers and friends) which all came from Confucius’ conversations of the Four Books (the Confucian system comprise Five classics and Four Books) The first relation was relative useful and should be concentrated study to the Young emperors or those inheritors who has not yet approach the regality. Second of all, from thousands years ago, the desire to bring the influences of these works to bear upon the education of civil rulers resulted the establishment of a system called Competitive Literary Examinations in china. Qing dynasty also has adopted this system for choosing their educated officers. To those who wanted to acquire positions of government, Confucian learning was crucial and necessary because the competitive examination was basically testing the materials from the study. The exemption consisted two prose essays and one poem. The themes of essays are taken from the Four Books and they were pretty much relating to some viewpoints of Confucius. The testers are supposed to be familiar with the meaning and connection of these themes to write their essays. The advantage of examination system also interested to foreigners and eventually been adopted by westerners. They were inspired by the service idea and started to create their own system. The system of civil service examinations in US would be the legacy of them. Even though the examination system seems proper and advanced, but in fact it also created a lot of issues and negative influence to...
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