Q3. Explain Confucius concept of virtue or de. Why does Confucius think a hermit cannot be virtuous? Confucius believed that the problem with government and society was caused by a lack of virtue. Confucius considered gravity, generosity of soul, sincerity, earnestness and kindness all virtuous.
According to Confucius if you are a hermit you cannot be virtuous. He argued that if you are virtuous, people will be attracted to you willing to provide you with help and information, and happily follow orders. Confucius even went as far as to say virtue is never solitary it always has neighbors (Analects; 4:25). Confucius would say living virtuous is the best way because it would help you live a fulfilling and righteous life. Q4. What is the Concept of “Wu Wei” or Non Action in Lao Tzu’s Tao Te Ching? How does a ruler combat social problems through “ non-action” is it doing nothing? Provide an example from the text of ruling through non-action. The concept of Wu Wei or non-Action means going with the flow, it is the path of least resistance and effort, for there is no action without reaction, no desire with out restraint. It means to find that path of least effort, for whatever we do always has a reaction. Do not seek to force something to happen. To rule through non-action “do not glorify heroes, and people will not contend. Don’t treasure rare objects and people will not steal. Don’t display what people desire and their hearts will not be disturbed.” (Tao Te Ching p.3) Live in a good place. Keep your mind deep. Treat others well. Stand by your word. Make fair rules. Do the right thing. Work when its time. Only do not contend, and you will not go wrong.”(Tao te Ching p. 8)
Q5. In Walden, Thoreau famously states most people live lives of “quiet desperation.” What makes Americans so desperate? Why does he think they suffer silently? Why are they so resigned to their fate? To explain Thoreau’s quote “most people live lives of quiet desperation”, he believed that...
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