Conflict management in organization of communication
Conflict management has developed into an important sub-field of organizational behaviour within a short time period. This trend underlines the greater acceptance of conflict as an organizational phenomenon and as a result, concern over its management. Reforming Romania’s public administration introduced many structural and methodical changes inside Romanian public organizations. Due to these changes and to public servants’ resistance to these changes, several conflict situations appeared. The purpose of this study is to analyze the multiple role of communication in conflict management, both as a mean to control/solve or even prevent conflicts and as a source for intra-organizational conflicts. Intra-organizational conflicts deal with the ‘structural makeup of an organization’. There are four types of intra-organizational conflict which is vertical conflict, horizontal conflict, line staff and role conflict. Vertical conflicts could occur because your supervisor is always telling you what to do and tries to micromanage instead of letting you do your job. This conflict involves two hierarchical levels and an employee and his/her immediate boss. This type of conflict exists mainly within police agencies, state and city agencies, where the organizational structure has a high degree of formality. Horizontal conflicts occur between employees within the same unit, on the same hierarchical level. Horizontal conflicts can manifest themselves for many reasons, including ideas, decisions about which units or individuals do not agree or the distribution of resources. Line-Staff conflicts occur between support staff and ‘actual units’ within a department. The example used by the authors, analyzing the police system, would be between a police file clerk and an officer who is looking for a cold case file about the administration of documents, files, evidence and many more. Another model of intra-organizational conflict is the structural model of conflict, which is built upon four variables. These are behavioural predispositions, social pressures, incentive structures and rules. Behavioural predispositions it is attitudes, needs, personality traits, attitudinal dissimilarities, competitive needs, gain motivation, incompetence, and socially devalued personal qualities breed conflict. Social pressures are of two types which is constituent social pressure that flows from the groups which the parties in the conflict represent. Typically, notes Thomas, constituent social pressures are directed towards competitive stances, although the reasons for this are not always clear. The second type, ambient social pressure, flows from outsiders, and includes larger social systems than those which encompass the conflicting parties. Ambient pressures tend to channel the conflict generated by constituent pressure into socially acceptable forms. The third element in the model, incentive structure, refers to the distribution of rewards following cooperative and non-cooperative transactions. Of crucial importance here are the conflicts of interest that occur when two or more subsystems. For example, the crew and mission control pursue mutually exclusive goals. Conflicts of interest may be minimized or eliminated by super ordinate goals which are of overriding importance to both groups and factions. It is therefore important to identify and incorporate goals which can be shared by all subsystems and which override separatist or special-interest goals. Rules and procedures refer to laws, customs, conventions and the like which govern ongoing negotiations. Decision rules provide advance codes regarding specific conflicts of interest. To the extent that such rules are effective, each party accepts the outcomes or constraints imposed by the rules and bear the expense in terms of decreased discretionary power. Reliance on rules generates less hostility than the exercise of coercive...
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