Conflict in Somali

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  • Topic: Somalia, Somaliland, Somali people
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Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics
January 2005
The report has not undergone review accorded to official World Bank publications. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/the World Bank and its affiliated organizations, or those of the Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data involved in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on the map do not imply any judgment on part of the World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.Foreword To help guide policy and program development in Somalia when the World Bank began reengaging after more than a decade, the Bank's Country Director decided to conduct a conflict analysis of the country. The purpose of the exercise was to increase the Bank's and partners’ understanding of conflict sources and dynamics, and contribute to conflict sensitivity in programs and interventions. The study was conducted in cooperation with Somali and international partners.

The study is presented in four reports: one overall report written by the World Bank’s task team, and one report for each main region, researched and written by the Center for Research and Dialogue in Mogadishu (South-central); Puntland Development Research Center in Garowe (Puntland); the Academy for Peace and Development (desk study); and the Center for Creative Solutions (fieldwork) in Hargeysa (Somaliland). The study presented in this report was conducted as a World Bank Economic and Sector Work (ESW), analytical work conducted to contribute to policy and program development, and as such has undergone internal consultations and peer-reviews. Within the Bank, the report has benefited from support and advice from Makhtar Diop (Country Director for Somalia, Kenya and Eritrea), Karen Brooks (Sector Manager, AFTS2), Ian Bannon (Manager, CPR), and Peer Reviewers: Estanislao Gacitua-Mario (Senior Social Scientist, SDV), Alexandre Marc (Sector Manager, ECSSD) and Robert Ebel (Lead Economist, WBI). In addition, the work was supported by several colleagues in the Somalia Country Team, the Africa Region Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Department (AFTS2), the Social Development Department (SDV), the World Bank Institute (WBI), Low Income Countries Under Stress (LICUS) unit, and the Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction (CPR) unit. The study has benefited immensely from inputs and advice by Professor Kenneth Menkhaus. Administrative assistance was provided by Fardousa Wadad-did and Shamis Salah. Invaluable support has been provided by Dirk Boberg, Assistant Resident Representative, UNDP Somalia. The World Bank’s task team included Priya Gajraj, Shonali Sardesai, and Per Wam (task team leader).

In addition to resources from the World Bank (Africa Region, Social Development Department and the Learning Board), the study was made possible with funds provided by UNDP, the Department for International Development (DFID) and the Swedish government. An advisory group, comprising WSP-International (War-torn Societies Project), the World Bank, UNDP, DFID, the European Union (EU), U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), Life and Peace Institute, and the Swedish Embassy in Nairobi, has advised the conflict analysis exercise to ensure consistency with other efforts. The advisory group met periodically to discuss the ongoing CAF exercise and provided feedback on the reports. 1Table of Contents

Acronyms…………………………………………………………………3 Map of Somalia…………………………………………………………...4 Introduction……………………………………………………………….5 Section 1: Brief Demographic Overview…………………………………7 Section 2: Overview of...
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