Conflict and Resolution

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* HRM perspective- conflict is the result of poor management… between labor and management… it’s a management problem that can be dealt with by management. * most, maybe all conflict, can be resolved through the implementation of innovative, organizational practices (ex. Scientific Management) You can establish a Unity of Interest if you have the right organizational practices. ‘all interests would align’ * Human relations movement came about from the ‘machine view’ of labor. * The ultimate belief is that very good management will eliminate most (if not all) conflict, even though some conflicts may arise. Those conflicts can be resolved through collective bargaining. * 
Industrial Relations Perspective is enduring

* No matter what you do you're not going to eliminate conflict between labor and management. * The source of the conflict is an imbalance of power between employees and employers * Management has more power.

* 2 primary means of dealing with this imbalance of power * Unionization- employees need to collectivize, they need to join together * Legislative enactment that deals with employment problems * Workplace conflict cannot be avoided.

* Some conflict is healthy because it shows that workers are comfortable enough to stand up for their rights. * 
Effects of Conflict:
* Employee turnovers can be costly for organizations… hiring/training costs * Shirking- not doing what you're required to do, not giving 100%, neglecting your duties, not trying as hard * Unionization- employees wont try to form a union if they have a good relationship with their employers. They only form a union if they're dissatisfied * Workplace Bullying- occurs when there is persistent negative interpersonal behavior that is experienced by people at work. * It has a negative effect on people's productivity. * Workplace Violence

20% of a manager's time is spent on resolving conflicts. 
Dispute resolution- there is a conflict, one party decides to make a claim (they express what they want from the other party), the other party rejects the claim…there is a dispute. * 3 elements of a dispute and dispute resolution:

* Interests- the underlying needs, desires, concerns, of a party involved in a dispute * Relates to the "why" question…you have to find out why they made the claim * Resolving disputes based on interests is difficult. You have to know what is motivating the other side. Why are they taking this position, why do they want what they want? * Should improve the relationship between the parties. * Problem-solving

* 2 types of interest-based dispute resolution * Negotiation- on your own
* Collaborative negotiation (win-win bargaining) * Mediation- through trough a mediator
* Rights- occur when the parties try to rely on some independent standard that has perceived legitimacy or fairness to determine the outcome * You will look for some guidepost to figure out how to resolve the conflict * Formal manifestations: Guidebook, company memo, collective bargaining agreement, external law * Informal: basic notions of fairness, reciprocity (I choose where we go to eat tonight, so you pick tomorrow), seniority, precedence (what was done to resolve this conflict in the past) * People usually make rights-based arguments. We want to 'show' that we have rights. * People don't always agree with rights-based arguments. Some people have different views on what's 'fair' * Benefit- there will most likely be more satisfaction with the results. If you're unhappy with the results, you blame it...
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