Conflict and Negotiations

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I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Conflict is a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to be negatively affect, something that the first party cares about. It also encompasses a wide range of conflicts that people experience in organizations.

Conflicts are usually caused by poor communication, lack of openness and failure to respond to employee needs. Human Relations View Conflict as the belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group. While Interactionist View Conflict as the belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively.

There are at least three Types of Conflicts: Task Conflicts or Conflicts over content and goals of the work; Relationship Conflicts or conflicts based on interpersonal relationships and; Process Conflicts or conflict over how work gets done.

There are five stages of conflict and they are as follows – Stage 1: Potential opposition or incompatibility, Stage 2: Cognition and Personalization; Stage 3: Intentions; Stage 4: Behavior and finally; Stage 5: Outcomes.

Negotiation in definition is a process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them.

There are two BARGAINING STRATEGIES that you can employ during negotiations: (1) Distributive Bargaining or the negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources; a win-lose situation and; (2) Integrative Bargaining or the negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution.

There are also steps to be followed in ensuring a successful negotiation process – Step 1: Preparation and planning; Step 2: Definition of ground rules; Step 3: Classification and justification; Step 4: Bargaining and Problem Solving and; Step 5: Closure and implementation

Finally there are five CONFLICT-HANDLING INTENTIONS: Competition, Collaboration, Avoidance, Accommodation, Compromise

II. OBJECTIVES

➢ At the end of this report, the group ensures that the audience will be able to:

1. Define conflict.

2. Differentiate between the traditional, human relations, and interactionist views of conflict.

3. Contrast task, relationship, and process conflict.

4. Outline the conflict process.

5. Describe the five conflict-handling intentions.

6. Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.

7. Identify the five steps in the negotiating process.

8. Describe cultural differences in negotiations.

III. CONFLICT IN DEFINITION

– A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about.

• Is that point in an ongoing activity when an interaction “crosses over” to become an interparty conflict.

– Encompasses a wide range of conflicts that people experience in organizations

• Incompatibility of goals

• Differences over interpretations of facts

• Disagreements based on behavioral expectations

Transitions in Conflict Thought

– The belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided.

Causes:

– Poor communication

– Lack of openness

– Failure to respond to employee needs

Human Relations View of Conflict

– The belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group.

Interactionist View of Conflict

– The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively.

Functional versus Dysfunctional Conflict

Functional Conflict

– Conflict that...
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