Concussions: Traumatic Brain Injury and Moderate Concussion

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Concussions
A concussion is a clinical syndrome of traumatic brain injury (TBI) also referred to as mild brain injury (MBI), is characterized by immediate but transient posttraumatic impairment of the brain function. Mental confusion, alteration of mental status, and amnesia are hallmarks of concussion symptoms that may or may not also include the loss of consciousness. It temporarily interferes with the way your brain works, and it can affect memory, judgment, reflexes, speech, balance, coordination, and sleep patterns. A concussion may result when the head hits an object or a moving object strikes the head. A concussion can result from a fall, sports activities, and car accidents. Significant movement of the brain can cause you to lose alertness. How long you remain unconscious may be a sign of the severity of the concussion. However, you don't always involve a loss of consciousness. Most people who have a concussion never black out. You can have a concussion and not realize it.

There are three grades to scale a concussions severity. Grade 1 is considered a mild concussion that has no loss of consciousness; posttraumatic amnesia lasting less than thirty minutes. Post concussion signs and symptoms other than amnesia lasting less than twenty-four hours. Grade 2 is a moderate concussion, loss of consciousness lasting less than one minute. Posttraumatic amnesia lasting longer than thirty minutes but less than twenty-four hours: postconcussion signs and symptoms lasting longer than twenty-four hours but less than seven days. Grade 3 is a severe concussion, which consist of loss of consciousness lasting more than one minute or posttraumatic amnesia lasting longer than twenty-four hours. The postconcussion signs and symptoms will last longer than seven days.

There are several things a doctor can do to test an athlete or a patient for a concussion. The doctor will perform a physical exam and check your nervous system. There may be changes in your pupil size,...
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