CONCLUSION
After calculating and observing the values and action of shear force it is concluded that: The bending moment is at maximum when the shear force is zero or changes sign. For every member the internal forces are described by shear force and bending moment. 7. SOURCES OF ERROR

Following were the possible errors which produced a mark difference from the actualvalues: 1. Making the beam less stable.
2. Unstable positioning of loads i.e., not placing the loads on the exact middle or on themarked lines. 3. Reading error called parallax error.
4. Possibly the distance between the loads and span was not exactly equal. 5. Disturbing the load while applying the force.
8. GENERALPRECAUTIONS
While carrying out this experiment several precautions must be kept in mind so that thepossibility of divergence from the accurate result is minimized. 1. Avoid parallax error.
2. Avoid disturbance from the surroundings.
3. Make sure that the beam is in the balanced position then take the readings. 4. Make sure that there should not be zero error in the spring balance. 5. If any then subtractfrom the final result.

6. Always and every time first measure the datum value.
7. It is good practice to see the balance level of the beam from a certain distance. 8. Make sure that in screwing/unscrewing your hand must not disturb the balance level. 9. Neither put heavy loads first nor over load the beam.

Discussions
1.From the experiment we found out that we need less load for a decreasing of length from the origin to produce bending moment. This can be proven by equation below: Moment = Fx F = Load applied X = Perpendicular distance 2.When there is a moment produced, shear force will balance the system(moment & forces exist) so that it will be in equilibrium...

...EXPERIMENT 2
Title : ShearForce and Bending Moment
Objective : To determine the shearforce and bending moment when concentrated load,
symmetrical load and non symmetrical load are applied
Introduction
The shearforce (F) in a beam at any section, X, is the force transverse to the beam tending cause it to shear across the section. The shearforce at any section is taken as positive if the right-hand side tends to slide downwards relative to the left hand portion. The negative force tends to cause the right hand portion to slide upwards relative to the left.
X
W
F
Shearforce F = Load W but in opposite directions
W
The bending effect at any section X of a concentrated load W is measured by the applied moment Wx, where x is the perpendicular distance of the line of action of W from section X. This moment is called the bending moment M.
x
X
M = Wx
The bending moment is balanced by an equal and opposite moment exerted by the material of the beam at X, called the moment of resistance. The bending moment is positive if its effect makes the beam to sag at the section considered. If the moment...

...
Lab report
SHEARFORCE & BENDING MOMENT
Bachelor (Hons) of Civil Engineering
Course: Structures l (ECS3213)
Lecturer: Ir Pan
Submission date: 07-11-2013
Group 8: Members
No.
Name
Student ID
1
Diallo Mamadou Aliou
SCM-014804
2
Balmeiiz Abilkhaiyrova
SCM-014742
3
Elmogdad Merghani Mohamed Elhag
SCM-017223
4
Omar Mohamed Abdelgawwad
SCM- 018031
5
Salah Mohammed Alesaei
SCM-015473
6
Ali Abdulrahman Mohammed
SCM-008879
7
Kasem Heiazi
SCM-017913
Contents
A. Introduction: 3
B. Objectives: 4
C. Theory: 4
D. Apparatus: 6
E. Procedures: 7
F. Results: 9
G. Calculations: 9
H. ShearForce Experiment Discussion: 14
I. Bending Moment Discussion: 15
J. Conclusion: 15
K. References 16
A. Introduction:
It is important to know how the shearforces and bending moments vary along the length of a beam that is being designed. Graphs are used to describe the change of shearforces and moments. These graphs are called shear and moment diagrams. Employing these diagrams, the maximum and minimum shear and moment are easily identified and located.
Constructing shear and moment diagrams is similar to finding the shear and moment at a particular point on a beam structure. However, instead of using an exact location, the location is a variable...

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By: M.ZIA UL HAQ
MS&E- 04
Abstract:
In this experiment we come to know how different amalgamation of loads and distances causes the variation of bending moments across the length of a beam. Another attribute of this report is that it envisage about the agreement of theoretical values calculated with those which are calculate during the experiment. The experiment was designed to foster creative thinking and to make the study of structural analysis more meaningful by incorporating the concept of design, model, test, observe and discuss.
Regards Muhammad Zia ul haq MS&E- 04
Theory:
Firstly, to compare the theoretical internal moment with the measured bending moment for a beam under various loads, and Secondly, to measure the shearforce at a normal section of a loaded beam and to check its corroboration with theory. The basis of this experiment is to give students a hands-on experience and...

...applied load (vertical). It resists the applied loading by a combination of internal transverse shearforce and bending moment. An accurate analysis required in order to make sure the beam is construct without any excessive loads which affect its strength.
A bending moment exists in a structural element when a moment is applied to the element so that the element bends. Moments and torques are measured as a force multiplied by a distance so they have as unit newton-metres (N·m). The concept of bending moment is very important in engineering (particularly in civil and mechanical engineering) and physics.
A shear stress, denoted [pic](Greek: tau), is defined as the component of stress coplanar with a material cross section. Shear stress arises from the force vector component parallel to the cross section. Normal stress, on the other hand, arises from the force vector component perpendicular or antiparallel to the material cross section on which it acts.
Objective : To show that at any section of a beam subjected to transverse loads;
i. The shearing force is defined as the algebraic sum of the transverse components of the forces to one side of the section.
ii. The bending moment is defined as the algebraic sum of the moments of the...

...CEMB 121 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY
EXPERIMENT (NO.2 (a))
SHEARFORCE I
SUMMARY
ShearForces occurs when two parallel forces act out of alignment with each other. For example, in a large boiler made from the sections of sheet metal plate riveted together, there is an equal and opposite force exerted on the rivets, owing to the expansion and contraction of the plates. The shearingforce (SF) at any section of a beam represents the tendency for the portion of the beam on one side of the section to slide or shear laterally relative to the other portion.
The diagram above shows a beam carrying loads W1, W2 and W3. It is simply supported at two points where the reactions are R1 and R2. Assume that the beam is divided into two parts bya section X-X. The resultant of the loads and reaction acting on the left of A-A is vertically upwards and since the whole beam is in equilibrium, the resultant force to the right of A-A must be F downwards. F is called the Shearing Force at the section A-A. It may be defined as follows; the shearing force at any section of a beam is the algebraic sum of the lateral components of the forces acting on either side of the section. Where forces are neither in the lateral or axial direction, they must be resolved in the usual way and only the lateral...

...TITLE : ShearForce Variation with an Increasing Point Load.
INTRODUCTION:
SHEARFORCE
The shearing force (SF) at any section of a beam represents the tendency for the portion of the beam on one side of the section to slide or shear laterally relative to the other portion.
The diagram shows a beam carrying loads . It is simply supported at two points where the reactions are Assume that the beam is divided into two parts by a section XX The resultant of the loads and reaction acting on the left of AA is F vertically upwards and since the whole beam is in equilibrium, the resultant force to the right of AA must be F downwards. F is called the Shearing Force at the section AA. It may be defined as follows:-
The shearing force at any section of a beam is the algebraic sum of the lateral components of the forces acting on either side of the section.
Where forces are neither in the lateral or axial direction they must be resolved in the usual way and only the lateral components use to calculate the shearforce.
EXPERIMENT 1A[i]:
ShearForce Variation with an Increasing Point Load
OBJECTIVE :
This experiment examines how shearforces varies with an increasing point load.
THEORY:
We know that if a body or object of any...

...that is 50 mm wide and 250 mm deep is subjected to shearforce of 22 kN, axial force (tension) of 16.5 kN and bending moment of 33 kN-m. Calculate and show the stress diagrams in the cross-section. What is the maximum normal stress, and where does it occur. What is the maximum shear stress and where does it occur.
Problem No. 2 (20 points)
Determine the principal stress, the maximum in-planeshear stress, and average normal stress. Specify the orientation of the element in each case. Use the Mohr circle approach.
Problem No. 3. (20 points)
Determine the deflection at midspan of the simply supported beam, E = 200 GPa, I = 39.9 (10-6) m4. What is the location of the maximum deflection?
Problem No. 4. (20 points)
Determine the elastic buckling strength of a wood column with length equal to 10 ft. The elastic modulus of the material is 1600 ksi. The column cross-section is rectangular with dimensions equal to 2 x 4 in. Assume that the column ends are pinned. How much will the column strength change if the top end of the column is changed from pin to fixed.
CE 270 EXAM NO. 2 (Duration = 100 minutes).
Materials allowed: Calculator. One 8.5 x 11 sheet of paper with notes written on one side to help with equations / formulas etc.
Problem No. 1 (20 points)
Two wrenches are used to tighten the pipe. If P = 300N is applied to each...

...of influence line for reactions, shearforce and moment for:
a. Simply supported beam
b. Simply supported beam with one end overhanging
c. Simply supported beam with both ends overhanging.
2. To calculate shearforce and moment using influence line
3. To determine maximum shearforce and moment
4. Calculate Absolute Maximum Moment (MMM)
4.1 INTRODUCTIONS:
Influence line is to:
Analysis a structure due to moving load along the beam.
Show the changes in reaction, shear stress, moment and displacement in certain point in structure when applied a unit load.
Determine the greatest position the greatest value of live load in beam.
4.2 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INFLUENCE LINE DIAGRAM (ILD) AND BMD (BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM)
INFLUENCE LINE DIAGRAM
(ILD)
BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM (BMD)
a) Static and Moving Load
b) Diagrams show only one point on the beam.
c) Calculations based on the virtual load.
d) Straight line only
e) Calculations do not refer to reactions of beam.
f) Unit: m
a) Static load only.
b) Diagram shows the moment at all points on the beam.
c) Calculations based on real loads.
d) Straight lines and curves.
e) Calculations based on the SFD.
f) Unit : kNm
4.3 BASIC CONCEPT TO DRAW INFLUENCE LINE DIAGRAM (ILD)
1 unit
x
A B C
a b
RAY = [L-x]/L 1-x/L RCY=x/L
4.3.1 REACTION
ILD RAY L/L...

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