Conceptual and Theoretical Understanding of Corruption in Nigeria

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PAPER’S TITLE: CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA AUTHOR: OBAH-AKPOWOGHAHA, NELSON GOLDPIN
CURRENT INSTITUTION/AFILIATION: Post Graduate (Msc) Student at Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife Osun State, Nigeria. Department of Political Science, P. O. Box 2006 OAU Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Email: goldefc2all@yahoo.co.uk. Tel: +2348062698441 ABSTRACT

The paper discusses theoretical perspectives of corruption, its causes, forms, pattern that it has taken and devices used to manipulate the 2003 election by some politicians in Nigeria. To properly ascertain the cause and effects of corruption in Nigeria, the paper examines and discusses some sociological theories that help to explain the trend of corruption as well as policy options to curtail the menace and other definitions and concept of scholars were enshrined. The paper allies with the view of scholars that poverty and the deterioration of our values and norms are some of the remote causes of corruption in Nigeria. In the cause of synthesizing views and concepts of scholars, content analysis was also utilised. In order to improve the system, the paper made some salient recommendation; (a) a national socio-cultural re-orientation, introduction of a workable economic policies and programmes of action gear toward alleviating poverty and; (b) the enactment of new anti- graft laws that will make the prosecution of corrupt officials to be more effective and efficient. The paper concludes that high rate of corruption in Nigeria is a function of poverty and the deterioration of our “values/norms” Keywords: Corruption, Embezzlement, Fraud, Bribery, Favouritism, Extortion and Election

1.1Introduction
The word corruption has been use by scholars in a different dimension in order to capture an ongoing system or an action of a person(s).”Misappropriation of Public Funds’’, is a popular phrase used to described corruption in Africa by scholars (Onimode,2001; Oladele, 2004). Since the early 1960s, researchers have devoted significant effort to the examination of corruption in the developing economies, paying much attention to the effects of the behaviour of civil servants on economic growth and development (Alemika and Chukwuma, 2001). Despite this emphasis on the study of corruption in Africa States especially Nigeria, there has been insufficient attention on conceptual and theoretical perspectives of corruption, its causes, forms, the pattern that it has taken and mechanism adopted by some politicians to manipulate various elections in Nigeria. Date back to 1960 in Nigeria, the military always accused the civilian administration of corruption. Hence, the sacking of various republic in the country. Analysts and a lot of research papers have examined corruption in Nigeria as well as in Africa from bureaucratic perspective, military and disjointed system inherited from the colonial masters (Diamond, 1993; Robert, 1990:457). The paper will look at the conceptual and theoretical perspectives of corruption, its causes, forms, the pattern that it has taken and mechanism adopted by some politicians to manipulate the 2003 election in Nigeria. However, the World Bank in conjunction with Transparency International has made known in various publications and international broadcast that corruption is a menace in Africa, especially in her economic and political scene. On various reviews and literature, Nigeria has been noted as one of the most corrupt country in the world. This rating was very pronounced during the siege of the military in politics and this has tainted the country’s image in the past. On her political scene, international observers have noted that election have not been free and fair and these have impacted negatively on the deepening of democratic norms and values in the country. Scholars have argued that since the system discourages fertilization of democratic ethos, hence the system further breed incapable hands that tend to...
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