CONCEPTS OF STATE, POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, GOVERNANCE AND ADMINISTRATION
I. What is Political Science?
A. It’s etymological meaning
- The word Politics comes from the Greek word “polis” meaning “city-state, and was defined by Aristotle in his book “The Politics” as in every city state there is a kind of association and that man by nature is a political animal. - Politics is also the means of organizing collective human activity. - The essence of social existence is Politics and that 2 or more men interacting with one another are invariably involved in a political relationship. - According to Dahl, Politics arises when people living together in associations and which involve conflicts, and subject to some kind of power, ruler-ship and/or authority. - According to Froman, It is the distribution of advantages and disadvantages among people through interaction with each other to satisfy their different wants and needs.
- From the Latin scientia meaning knowledge, it is the systematic way of gaining knowledge thru scientific methods, and a body of knowledge gained thru research.
B. POLITICAL SCIENCE
- The study of the state in all it’s elements, aspects and relationships. - A branch of social science which deals with the origin, organization of the government, the theories and practice of the state. - According to Robert Dahl, it is a systematic study of politics. - A systematic analysis to discover in confusing detail whatever principles may exist of wider and more general significance.
C. Six approaches in studying Political science/Political Puzzles (Kay Lawson)
1. Studying Political Behavior – focuses on how individuals act politically, based on Behavioralist approach. Ex; Why do people join political strikes and what behavior is displayed during these srikes.
2. Studying Political Structure – A structural-functional approach, focuses on important political roles established in society, there functions that they perform, and how did these roles and their influences be carried out. Ex: The legislative branch of the gov’t formulates and makes the laws , while the president of the executive branch expresses and administers these laws.
3. Studying Political Phenomena – phenomenological in approach, focuses on the study of the causes of change and their corresponding effects in the political system, phenomenological changes are any event that has an effect on a political situation, events that change a political system. Ex: Death of Ninoy Aquino, sparked the EDSA revolution.
4. Studying Political Ideas – uses the Philosophical approach, focuses on the meaning of political life, deals with political theory and ideologies. Ex: Liberalism vs Conservatism, laisses faire vs Dictatorship
5. Studying Political Documents - the art and practice of reading and deciphering political documents, study of laws, declarations, or any written document that is a result of the practice of politics. Ex: the study of the Philippine Constitution
6. Studying Political Future – studies the effects of politics to the society in general, and the future effects of any political decision or decree. Ex: what are the positive and negative effects of the clean air act to the environment, the society, the culture and even the economy of the Philippines?
D. The Paradigm of a Political System
E. Areas of Fields of Political Science
• Political Theory/Philosophy – is political thought which explains the political ideas and beliefs of a group of people and the body of concepts they live by in a certain period. It expresses the moral/ethical standards the government may adopt to run public affairs. Ex: the dictatorship/authoritarianistic rule of Marcos under the Martial Law
• Public Law – refers to the constitutional and...
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