In directly meaning Maqasid Al-Syariah can be define as the objectives of Islamic law. However, in linguistic meaning Maqasid is define as follow, a goal or as an inspiration meanwhile Al-Syariah is define as the law that God reveal to Muhammad involving all aspects of life such as family institution, in finance or it can say the way of a Muslims live their life.
In together term Maqasid Al-Syariah carriers the meaning based on its constituent part, of the goal and objectives which are reason for legislation of the rule of Islam. As we known all law in Islam has wisdom behind them and not randomly legislated or without purpose. These terms are back bone to this concept. They are Illah and Hikmah.
Illah; in linguistically has two meaning. A sickness and a reason or causes. In definition Illah is a law that exist because of the reason or it impact in bad ways. As an example is prohibition of drinking alcohol is due to it give bad effects to our health and mental stability. Allah prohibits us to drink Alcohol in order to avoid us losing our insanity and doing something immoral without our awareness.
Hikmah; in linguistically means wisdom or intend. This mean Islamic law has it intend even though it is not clear why Allah make a rule like that. There are some rules in Shariah for which the reason for their legislation is not clear or apparent. We do not say that there is no reason, rather which it is hidden from us and Allah with His wisdom chose not to disclose it. As an Example prayer five times daily. That not to say there are no benefits. Only Allah knows best.
2.Sources of Islamic Law
Several of sources Islamic law used by Islamic jurisprudence to clarify the Shariah. There are two main sources that can be consider as the core of Islamic law which is Al-Quran and Sunnah.However in some circumstances of jurisprudence different methods are used to judge the level of authencity which is comprise of Ijtima’ and Qias.
Muslims believe the Quran to be the direct words of Allah, as revealed to and transmitted by the Prophet Muhammad. All sources of Islamic law must be in essential agreement with the Quran, the most fundamental source of Islamic knowledge. When the Quran itself does not speak directly or in detail about a certain subject, Muslims only then turn to alternative sources of Islamic law.
Sunnah is the traditions or known practices of the Prophet Muhammad, many of which have been recorded in the volumes of Hadith literature. The resources include many things that he said, did, or agreed to -- and he lived his life according to the Quran, putting the Quran into practice in his own life. During his lifetime, the Prophet's family and companions observed him and shared with others exactly what they had seen in his words and behaviors -- i.e. how he performed ablutions, how he prayed, and how he performed many other acts of worship. People also asked the Prophet directly for rulings on various matters, and he would pronounce his judgment. All of these details were passed on and recorded, to be referred to in future legal rulings. Many issues concerning personal conduct, community and family relations, political matters, etc. were addressed during the time of the Prophet, decided by him, and recorded. The Sunnah can thus clarify details of what is stated generally in the Quran.
In situations when Muslims have not been able to find a specific legal ruling in the Quran or Sunnah, the consensus of the community is sought (or at least the consensus of the legal scholars within the community). The Prophet Muhammad once said that his community (i.e. the Muslim community) would never agree on an error.
In cases when something needs a legal ruling, but has not been clearly addressed in the other sources, judges may use analogy, reasoning, and...