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Concept of Income

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Income is defined generally as the flow of cash or cash-equivalents received from work (wage or salary), capital (interest or profit), or land (rent). For corporations, revenues minus cost of sales, operating expenses, and taxes, over a given period of time. Income is the reason corporations exist, and are often the single most important determinant of a stock's price. Income is important to investors because they give an indication of the company's expected future dividends and its potential for growth and capital appreciation. That does not necessarily mean that low or negative earnings always indicate a bad stock; for example, many young companies report negative income as they attempt to grow quickly enough to capture a new market, at which point they'll be even more profitable than they otherwise might have been. For individuals, money earned through employment and investments.


This is an annual charge levied on both earned income (wages, salaries, commission) and unearned income (dividends, interest, rents). In addition to financing a government's operations, progressive income taxation is designed to distribute wealth more evenly in a population, and to serve as automatic fiscal stabilizer to cushion the effects of economic cycles. Its two basic types are; (1) Personal income tax, levied on incomes of individuals, households, partnerships, and sole-proprietorships; and (2) Corporation income tax, levied on profits (net earnings) of incorporated firms. However, presence of tax loopholes (whose number increases in direct proportion to the complexity of tax code) may allow some wealthy persons to escape higher taxes without violating the letter of the tax laws.

Accounting income is defined as an estimate of performance in the operations of a company. It is influenced by financing and investing decisions. Accounting income or loss generally recognizes realized gains...

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