Concept of Change

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Conceptually, the change process starts wit awareness of the need for change. An analysis of this situation and the factors that have created it leads to diagnosis of their constructive characteristics and an indication of the direction in which action needs to be taken. Possible courses of action can then be identified and evaluated and a choice made of the preferred action. It is necessary to decide how to get from here to there. Managing change during this transition state is a critical phase in the change process. It is here that the problems of introducing change emerge and have to be managed. These problems can conclude resistance to change, low stability, and high levels of stress, misdirected energy, conflict and loss of momentum. Hence the need to do everything possible to anticipate reactions and likely impediments to the introduction of change. The installation stage can also be painful. When planning change there is tendency for people to think that it will be an entirely logical and linear process of going from A to B. It is not like that at all. As described by Pettigrew and Whipp (1991), the implementation of changes is an ‘iterative, cumulative and reformulation in-use process’. To manage change, it is first necessary to understand the types of change and why people resist change. It is impossible to bear in mind that while those wanting change need to be constant about ends, they have to be flexible about means. This requires them to come to an understanding of the various models of change that have been developed. In the light of an understanding of these models they will be better equipped to make use of the guidelines for change set out at the end of this section. There are two main types of change; Strategic change is concerned with organisational information. It deals with broad, long-term and organisation-wide issues. It is about moving to a future state, which has been defined generally in terms of strategic vision and scope. It will...
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