July 2nd, 2012
Concept Comparison and Analysis
Core concepts are the basis for a theory or model; concepts help in the development of theories. Theorists have developed different models or theories but have common core concepts. This paper will identify the core concept of ‘the role of nursing,’ which two theorists, Dorothea Orem and Virginia Henderson both utilized. We will compare and analyze the concept definitions among both theorists, and discuss the practical use of Orem’s self care theory. Core Concept
The core concept of ‘The role of nursing’ was used in both Dorothea Orem’s self care model and in Virginia Henderson’s nursing care model. Dorothea Orem’s definition of nursing is “actions deliberately selected and performed by nurses to help individuals or groups under their care to maintain or change conditions in themselves or their environments” (Current Nursing, 2010, para. 4). Virginia Henderson’s definition of nursing is “assisting individuals to gain independence in relation to the performance of activities contributing to health or its recovery” (Timetoast, 2011). Their theories in relation to the concept differ where Orem’s concept requires the patient to have a self deficit and in need of nursing care or support; while Henderson’s concept states that nursing is required regardless if the patient is sick or healthy. The concepts are also similar in the fact that they both support the patient is regaining optimal health. Their concepts are applicable in different nursing settings because the goals of each are the same. Orem’s Self Care Theory—Metaparadigms
Within Orem’s self care theory, there are five metaparadigms: nursing, health, environment, human being, and nursing client. Orem views nursing as an art, a helping service, and a technology. Orem’s definition of nursing is “actions deliberately selected and performed by nurses to help individuals or groups under their care to maintain or change conditions in themselves or their environments” (Current Nursing, 2010, para. 3). Orem encompasses the patient’s, the physician’s, and the nurse’s perspective of the patient’s health condition. Her goal of nursing is to make the patient and members of the patient’s family capable of meeting the patient’s self care needs, maintain an optimal state of health, to regain previous state of health after an illness or disease, and to decrease the effects of a chronic illness. Orem uses the terms ‘health’ and ‘healthy’ to describe living things ; “it is when they are structurally and functionally whole or sound, in conjunction, with physiological and psycho-physiological mechanisms and a material structure in relation to and interacting with other human beings” (Current Nursing, 2010, para. 4). Orem’s environment is the elements, conditions, and components within the environment. According to Orem a human being “has the capacity to reflect, symbolize and use symbols; a unity that can function biologically, symbolically, and socially” (Current Nursing, 2010, para. 5). A nursing client is a human being who has health related or derived issues that cause them to be incapable of continuous and complete self care; they are the focus, only when their self care needs exceed their self care capabilities. Theory of Self Care
Orem’s definition of self care is the “practice of activities that the individual initiates and performs on their own behalf to maintain life, health, and well being” (Current Nursing, 2010, para. 12). The human ability to engage in self care is determined by age, developmental state, life experience, social and cultural orientation, health, and available resources. Orem describes three self care requisites; universal self care requisites, developmental self care requisites, and health deviation of self care; all are directed towards the provision of self care. Universal self care requisites are the maintenance,...