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An Investigation to see How the Concentration of Hydrochloric acid affects the Rate of Reaction with Calcium Carbonate
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Length: 3036 words (8.7 double-spaced pages)
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- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - An Investigation to see How the Concentration of Hydrochloric acid affects the Rate of Reaction with Calcium Carbonate
I am going to investigate how concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and indigestion tablets which contain mainly calcium carbonate.
From my background knowledge from class work and books, (see references) I have found out that if you increase the concentration of hydrochloric acid, the rate of reaction will increase and the time of the reaction will decrease. The concentration is dependant on the proportions of hydrochloric acid and water in the solution. The stronger the hydrochloric acid is, the higher the concentration is.
I know from my research that other things can affect the rate of reaction, for example:
Temperature of acid- the higher the temperature of the acid is, the more energy the particles have to move around, therefore there are more collisions and so a faster rate of reaction. There is a certain amount of energy needed for the particles to react which is called the activation energy, so when the temperature of the solution is higher, it gives more particles sufficient energy so they move faster to react when they collide more.
Size of the particles- when the reactant is a solid then it can be broken down into smaller pieces or into a powder giving it different surface areas. The smaller the pieces, the bigger the surface area is and therefore there is more area for the acid to react with it, and so there is more chance of the particles colliding, so the rate of reaction will increase.
Catalysts- this weakens the bonds in the reacting molecules so it seems to lower the activation energy for the reaction. This means that there can be many more successful collisions because particles will have more energy than the activation energy, and so the reaction will be faster.
In order to keep my experiment fair, I must keep all the variables the same except concentration, which is what I am investigating.
From my preliminarty experiments, I have found that a gas is let off in this reaction and having testing by putting it with lime water, I have concluded that the gas is carbon dioxide because the lime water turned cloudy.
The equation is:
Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric acid Calcium Chloride + water + carbon dioxide
To find the rate of reaction, I will measure how long it takes to produce a certain amount of gas. To work out the rate of reaction, I have to divide the amount of gas I will collect with the time.
Rate= amount of gas collected/ time
In order to make this experiment fair, I will keep all the variables the same, except concentration. I will keep the mass of calcium carbonate the same by using one tablet each time. The masses of each tablet vary, but only by a tenth of a gram either side of 1.01g, which I think is not a large enough difference in mass to make a difference to my experiment. I will try to do all my experiments on the same day, so the room temperature will be the same, which means the temperature of the acid will not change. I will use a burette to measure the amount of hydrochloric acid and water, so the volume of acid will be the...
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