At the early age people used pebbles, stones, sticks, scratches, symbols and finger tips to count, which were later replaced by numbers.

The history of computing is divided into three ages during which man invented and improved different types of calculating machines. These ages are,

* Dark Age - 300 BC to 1890

* Middle age - 1890 AD to 1944

* Modern age - since 1944 AD

Dark Age (3000 BC to 1890 AD

ABACUS

About 3000 years BC, Chinese developed the first calculating machine named Abacus or Soroban.

Abacus consists of a rectangular wooden frame having rods which carry round beads. Counting is done by shifting the beads from one side to another.

OUGHTRED’S SLIDE RULES

In 1632 AD William Oughtred; an English mathematician developed a slide rule. This device consists of two movable rules placed side by side on which number were marked.

PASCAL’S CALCULATOR

Blasé Pascal (1623-1662), French developed the first mechanical calculating machine in 1642. This machine consists of gears, wheels and dials. It was capable of adding and subtracting operations.

GOTTEFRIED WILHOLM LEIBNITZ

In 1671, a German, Gottfried Von Leibnitz (1646-1716) improved Pascal’s calculator to make it capable of performing all math operations.

JACQUARD’S LOOM

In 1801, a French, Joseph Marie Jacquard developed the first punch card machine.

BABBAGE DIFFERENCE ENGINE

Charles Babbage (1792-1871) an English mathematician also called Father of modern computer. As he gave the true concept of computer at Cambridge University, he developed Babbage Difference Engine in 1823 and Babbage Analytical Engine in 1833.

Lady Ada Augusta an assistant of Babbage is called the first programmer.

Middle Age (1890 AD TO 1944 AD)

DOCTOR HERMAN HOLLERITH

In 1880s Herman Hollerith an American developed a machine which used punch card system. The machine could sense and punch holes, recognize the number and make required...

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