Computerised Layout

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technical note five

F A C I L I T Y L AYO U T

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Basic Production Layout Formats
Process layout defined Product layout defined Group technology (cellular) layout defined Fixed-position layout defined

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Process Layout
Computerized layout techniques—CRAFT Systematic layout planning CRAFT defined Systematic layout planning (SLP) defined

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Product Layout
Assembly lines Assembly-line balancing Splitting tasks Flexible and U-shaped line layouts Mixed-model line balancing Current thoughts on assembly lines Workstation cycle time defined Assembly-line balancing defined Precedence relationship defined

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Group Technology (Cellular) Layout
Developing a GT layout Virtual GT cells

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Fixed-Position Layout Retail Service Layout
Servicescapes Ambient conditions Spatial layout and functionality Signs, symbols, and artifacts

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Office Layout Conclusion Case: Soteriou’s Souvlaki Case: State Automobile License Renewals

technical note

TECHNICAL NOTE FIVE

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FACILITY LAYOUT

technical note

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PLANET EARTH ORBITING THE ASSEMBLY LINE IN
A GLOBE FACTORY. THE GLOBES ARE MOVING THROUGH THE FACTORY USING A TRANSPORT SYSTEM SUSPENDED FROM THE CEILING OF THE FACTORY.

Layout decisions entail determining the placement of departments, work groups within the departments, workstations, machines, and stock-holding points within a production facility. The objective is to arrange these elements in a way that ensures a smooth work flow (in a factory) or a particular traffic pattern (in a service organization). In general, the inputs to the layout decision are as follows: 1 Specification of the objectives and corresponding criteria to be used to evaluate the design. The amount of space required, and the distance that must be traveled between elements in the layout, are common basic criteria. 2 Estimates of product or service demand on the system. 3 Processing requirements in terms of number of operations and amount of flow between the elements in the layout. 4 Space requirements for the elements in the layout. 5 Space availability within the facility itself, or if this is a new facility, possible building configurations. In our treatment of layout, we examine how layouts are developed under various formats (or work-flow structures). Our emphasis is on quantitative techniques, but we also show examples of how qualitative factors are important in the design of the layout. Both manufacturing and service facilities are covered in this technical note.

B A S I C P R O D U C T I O N L AYO U T F O R M AT S
q q q The formats by which departments are arranged in a facility are defined by the general pattern of work flow; there are three basic types (process layout, product layout, and fixed-position layout) and one hybrid type (group technology or cellular layout). A process layout (also called a job-shop or functional layout) is a format in which similar equipment or functions are grouped together, such as all lathes in one area and all stamping machines in another. A part being worked on then travels, according to the established sequence of operations, from area to area, where the proper machines are located for each operation. This type of layout is typical of hospitals, for example, where areas are dedicated to particular types of medical care, such as maternity wards and intensive care units. A product layout (also called a flow-shop layout) is one in which equipment or work processes are arranged according to the progressive steps by which the product is made. The path for each part is, in effect, a straight line. Production lines for shoes, chemical plants, and car washes are all product layouts. Vol. I “The Manufacturing Process”

Process layout
Serv i

ce

Product layout

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section 2

PRODUCT DESIGN...
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