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CHEMISTRY
CLASS: XII

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN

LUCKNOW R E G I O N 2009-2010

Study Material Class XII -Chemistry
SHRI RANGLAL JAMUDA IAS,COMMISSIONER CHIEF Patron KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGTHAN NEW DEHLI SHRI M.S Chauhan Asst. Commissioner Patron Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangthan Lucknow Region SHRI S.S. Rawat Guidance Smt. A.N Siddiqui (Education officer) (Education officer)

SHrI K.,M. Bhatnagar (Education officer)

Co-ordinator

SHRI. T. Singh Principal K.V. No. 2 AFS. Chakeri 1. Mrs. Radha Gupta (In charge) (PGT. Chem. , K.V No. 2 Chakeri) 2. Mr. Neeraj Kumar Dubey (PGT.Chem. , K.V.No 2 Armapur)

Subject Contributors

3. Miss. Vandana Pandey (PGT. Chem., K.V No. 3 Chakeri) 4. Mr. Raj Shekhar (PGT. Chem K.V. No2 Chakeri) 5. Mr. S.C Tiwari (PGT. Chem K.V.Cannt II) 6. Mrs. Sandhya Srivastav (PGT.Chem , K.V.Unnao) 7. Mr. S.P.Jayas (PGT Chem., K.V.No. 2 Chakeri)

Technical Support

Mr. Padam Pandey (PGT. C.S. Contractual K.V.No.2 AFS Chakeri)

CONTENTS
ONE PAPER
UNIT NO.
I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII XIV XV XVI

70 MARKS
TITLE
SOLID STATE SOLUTIONS ELECTROCHEMISTRY CHEMICAL KINETICS SURFACE CHEMISTRY GENERAL PRINCIPALES AND PROCESSES OF ISOLATION OF ELEMENTS P-BLOCK ELEMENTS D & F BLOCK ELEMENTS COORDINATION COMPOUNDS HALOALKANES & HALORENES ALCOHALS, PHENOLS & ETHERS ALDEHYDES, KETONES & CARBOXYLIC ACID ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING NITROGEN BIOMOLECULES POLYMERS CHEMISRY IN EVERDAY LIFE 4 3 3 8 5 3 4 4 6 4

MARKS
4 5 5 5 4 3

TOTAL

70

Unit-I THE SOLID STATE

POINTS TO BE REMEMBERED:IMPORTANT FORMULAE Density of unit cell = Mass of unit cell = z × M Volume of unit cell Na × a3 z- Number of atoms per unit cell M – Atomic mass or formula mass for ionic solids Na – Avogadro number a – Edge length Radius r+ = = ratio Radius of the cation rRadius of the anion  If R is the radius of spheres in the close packed arrang then I. Radius of octahedral void = r = 0.414 R II. Radius of tetrahedral void = r = 0.225 R Packing fr by atoms in unit cell action = Volume occupied Total volume of the unit cell  Different types of solids (table) Unit cell Distance b/w nearest neighbor (d) Radius Constituent Atom Coord Ination no. Packing fraction Number of Constituent Atoms

Simple cubic a Face centered a/ cubic (FCC) Body centered /2a cubic (BCC) Where, a = edge length of unit cell

a/2 a/2 /4a

6 12 8

0.52 0.74 0.68

1/8×8 = 1 (1/8×8) + (1/2×6) = 4 (1/8×8) + 1 = 2

Radius ratio r+ /r-

Possible condition no.

Structural arrangement

Structural type

Coordination no.

0.225-0.414 0.414-0.732 0.732-1.0

4 6 8

Tetrahedral Octahedral cubic

ZnS NaCl CsCl

Zn2+= 4S2=4 + Na = 6Cl=6 + Cs = 8 Cl- = 8

*Types of point defects (flow chart) *Classification of solids on basis of electrical properties (flow chart) *Classification based on magnetic properties (flow chart)

Different Type of Solids
s.n. Type of Solids 1. Molecular Solids (i)Non -polar Constituent Particles Bonding/ Attractive Forces Examples Physical Nature Electrical Conductivity Melting Point

Soft Molecules Dispersion or London forces Dipoledipole Interactions Ar, CCl4 , H2 , I2 , Co2 Soft Insulator HCl , SO2 Hard Insulator H2O(ice) Low Low Insulator Very low

(ii)Polar

(iii)Hydrogen bonded

2.

Ionic solids

Ions

Hydrogen bonding Coulombic NaCl, MgO or Zns, CaF2 electrostatic

3.

Metallic solids

4.

Covalent or Network solids

Positive ions In a sea of delocalized electrons Atoms

Metallic bonding

Fe, Cu, Ag, Mg

Covalent bonding

SiO2 (quartz), SiC , C(diamond), AIN, C(graphite)

Hard but Insulators in brittle solid state but conductors in molten state and in aqueous solutions Hard but Conductors in malleabl solid state as e well as in and molten state ductile Hard Insulators

High

Fairly high

Very high

Soft

Conductor (exception)

Classification of solids on basis of...
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